Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis (the tube that carries semen out of the testicles), and orchitis is an inflammation of the testicle and most often follows from infection of the epididymis.

Most cases in children arise from a viral infection, especially the mumps, with inflammation typically beginning four-to-six days after the mumps start.

Symptoms, typically pain and swelling, may start quickly or slowly. Symptoms may also include redness, pain and tenderness, fever and chills, nausea, malaise and fatigue, headache, body aches, and pain and discharge with urination.

According to the source of the infection — bacterial or viral — antibiotics may or may not be prescribed. Patients will generally be treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories and cold packs for pain.

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