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Electrophysiology Program

What Is Cardiac Electrophysiology?

Cardiac electrophysiology is the study and treatment of heart rhythm problems.

On the street, electricity flows through stoplights, creating signals to start and stop traffic. As a result, cars and people can move safely and more efficiently. In a similar way, electrical signals flow through the heart and signal the heart to beat safely and efficiently. When the heart’s electrical signals don’t work as they should, the heartbeat can become too fast, too slow, or irregular. These abnormal rhythms are called “arrhythmias”. Arrhythmias can be caused by abnormal electrical connections, genetic predispositions, an infection, or an acquired problem in the heart. 

Doctors who study and treat arrhythmias are cardiac electrophysiologists. At Lurie Children’s, our electrophysiologists diagnose and treat all types of arrhythmias. We treat children, adolescents, fetuses before birth, and adults who were born with congenital heart disease.


Why Choose Lurie Children's?

The Electrophysiology (EP) Program at Lurie Children’s is the largest program in Illinois and one of the premier programs in the nation. We are a high-volume center for children in Chicago and Illinois, and we evaluate children referred for second opinions nationally and internationally. Our experienced team of electrophysiologists diagnose and treat abnormal heart rhythms. We are also a high-volume pediatric interventional center, providing invasive correction of the heart rhythm through cardiac ablation and implantation of cardiac rhythm devices.

Most importantly, we have decades of experience in heart rhythm care, offering judgement and family-centered care in children with heart rhythm disease. With advanced testing, expert intervention, and a thoughtful approach to care, children with arrhythmias can lead healthy lives. Many lead entirely normal lives, unencumbered by the arrhythmia that brought them to our care.

Parents feel confident in our care because:

  • We provide exceptional heart care. U.S.News & World Report consistently ranks us among the top hospitals for pediatric cardiology and heart surgery. This means we are able to diagnosis and treat children with the most complex heart rhythm issues.
  • Our team is integrated into every part of the Heart Center. Our electrophysiology team includes highly specialized physicians, trained pediatric arrhythmia nurses, advanced practice providers, and genetic counselors, who are on call 24/7 to help manage children and young adults with all types of arrhythmias.
  • We provide care near you. In addition to providing superior care at our main campus in downtown Chicago, we have community clinics, where you will receive care from the same electrophysiology team as our downtown hospital. We bring quality care to where you are. 
  • Care is a team approach. Your child’s care will benefit from the comprehensive experience and knowledge of our team of five electrophysiologists. Our specialists collaborate frequently and meet weekly to discuss challenging clinical cases and optimize care.
  • We use the latest ablation technology. We have been one of the leading centers to use cutting edge ablation technology including radiofrequency ablation, which uses heat to alter the tissue causing the arrhythmia and cryoablation, which uses cold to freeze the tissue. We use advanced three-dimensional imaging during procedures to make procedures safer and faster. Our center has been a research leader in ablation for over 30 years.
  • Streamlined complex care. We recognize that many of our cardiac patients require vital care beyond cardiology. We work with you and your other medical teams to streamline your child’s multidisciplinary care. We strive to improve the overall patient experience and to minimize hospital visits.
  • Our complication rate is exceedingly low. We pride ourselves on being among the safest centers in the country for invasive electrophysiology procedures. We are one of the leading centers in the national effort to track safety and efficacy in invasive pediatric electrophysiology.
  • Personalized approach. We get to know our families and patients, communicate our approach to care in plain language, and work with you to develop a treatment plan that makes sense for the patient and the family.
  • Our team is at the heart of innovative research. Our electrophysiology team is at the forefront pediatric electrophysiology research, having over 100 publications and dedicated physician-scientists who make up our core group of five electrophysiologists.

Philosophy of Care 

Our goal is to provide expert heart rhythm care, merging exceptional clinical skill with world-class research. We partner with patients and their families to respond to your family’s priorities and goals.

Our Numbers Speak Volumes

Our program has established one of the largest clinical volumes in the country. Our team has performed thousands of invasive heart rhythm procedures. These procedures include diagnostic cardiac catheterization, ablation of arrhythmia substrate, implantation of pacemakers and defibrillators, implantation of subcutaneous rhythm recording devices, and much more. Each year, we perform and interpret over 32,000 non-invasive electrophysiology studies, including electrocardiograms, Holter monitors, event monitors and more. We follow several hundred patients with pacemakers and defibrillators, many of whom we follow in partnership with the adult congenital care program.

Conditions We Treat

Our EP teams has a broad range of clinical and research interests, including the following:

Meet Our Electrophysiology Team

Gregory Webster, MD, MPH

Section Chief, Electrophysiology

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics (Cardiology), Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

A. Sami Chaouki, MD, PhD

Director, ECG Laboratories; Attending Physician, Cardiology; Program Director, Invasive Cardiology Fellowship

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics (Cardiology), Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Stephanie Chandler, MD

Attending Physician, Cardiology

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics (Cardiology), Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Lajja P. Desai, MD

Attending Physician, Cardiology

Instructor of Pediatrics (Cardiology), Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Kendra M. Ward, MD, MSCI

Director, Cardiopulmonary Exercise Lab; Director, Cardiac Rehabilitation Program; Director, Preventive Cardiology Program; Attending Physician, Cardiology

Associate Professor of Pediatrics (Cardiology), Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Advanced Practice Providers

Advanced practice providers are licensed independent practitioners with training in pediatric or family medicine. They receive advanced training in cardiac electrophysiology and provide inpatient and outpatient consultations for patients and families with heart rhythm disorders.

Marisa L. Nally, APRN-NP

Advanced Practice Provider, Outpatient Cardiology

Jaclyn Reider, APRN-NP, CPNP-AC, CCDS

Pediatric Nurse Practitioner, Electrophysiology

Nurses

The electrophysiology team includes three nurses with bedside experience in caring for children and additional training in cardiac electrophysiology. They monitor heart rhythm devices, provide expert advice on questions about medications and symptoms, write letters and communications for schools and work, and provide exceptional patient-centered care.

Our nursing team includes: 

  • Jessica Bobro, BSN, RN, CPN
  • Toria Morton, BSN, RN
  • Maggie Smith, BSN, RN, CPN

For patients with heart rhythm devices, including pacemakers, ICDs and implantable loop recorders, our nurse coordinator ensures that your device is monitored safely and effectively.

  • Megan Germino, MSN, RN, CCTC

What to Expect at Your First Appointment

Please plan on initial visits taking approximately two and a half hours. This will allow plenty of time for an electrophysiologist to meet with you and your child, do a physical exam, discuss symptoms, ask questions about the patient’s and family medical history.

If any previous cardiac testing has been done, please fax this to our office in advance of the visit to 312.227.9640, or bring it with you to your visit for your provider to review.

The electrophysiologist may want to perform one or more heart tests at your visit, which may include:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). An ECG is a non-invasive test, performed through sensors (electrodes) to detect electrical activity of the heart. An ECG measures the timing and duration of electrical phases in the heartbeat. This test takes approximately 10 minutes and can be performed on children of any age. Almost every child referred to an electrophysiologist will have an ECG at the first visit.
  • Echocardiogram (Echo). An echocardiogram is a noninvasive test of the heart that uses sound waves to produce images of the heart’s size, structure, and function. This test takes approximately one hour. In some cases, we may ask that your child have an echocardiogram before the visit or on another day after the visit. A nurse or member of our scheduling staff will discuss that with you if the doctor wants to coordinate an echocardiogram on a separate day.
  • Holter Monitor. A Holter monitor is a portable ECG device. The patient will have this device placed before leaving clinic and wear it for 24 hours to record the heart’s activity as the patient goes about his or her normal daily routine.
  • Event Recorder. This is a wearable ECG device which is worn for longer durations of time, typically 30 days. It is used to detect sporadic arrhythmias, unlikely to be captured by a one-day Holter monitor. The patient will press a button to document when they feel any symptoms.
  • Exercise Stress Test (EST). Some patients have worse rhythm problems during exercise. During an EST, the heart’s activity is monitored while the patient runs on a treadmill or pedals a stationary bike. Exercise stress tests are not usually done in children younger than elementary school age.

Scheduling an Electrophysiology Visit

Lurie Children’s Electrophysiology Program team is available to answer your questions, provide you with more information regarding you or your child’s plan of care, and assist in the scheduling of first-time visits or second opinions.

  • Our EP team is available Monday–Friday to see patients at our main campus and select outreach locations throughout the Chicagoland area
  • To schedule an appointment, call 312.227.4397
  • If your physician is referring you, please fax the referral to 312.227.9640
  • For general administrative questions, call 312.227.4100
  • Requests for second opinions regarding Electrophysiology may be faxed to 312.227.9640, Attn: EP Admin

If you need additional information or assistance, please call 312.227.4100 or email EP@luriechildrens.org. If this is an emergency, please seek immediate medical attention or call 9-1-1.

Cardiovascular Genetics Program

You or your child may have been referred to electrophysiology because of a condition that can be inherited in families. Examples of this include long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, or CPVT. In some cases there are rhythm concerns about a heart muscle disease or cardiomyopathy. In other cases, children are referred because a family member has passed away or had a life-threatening arrhythmia. In these cases, the Electrophysiology Program works closely with our Cardiovascular Genetics Program. In most cases, you will see both a physician within the Electrophysiology Program and a genetic counselor. 

POTS Clinic

It is common for patients to be referred to an electrophysiology clinic for episodes of fainting or syncope. In some cases, patients are diagnosed with a separate illness called “Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome”, or POTS.  Lurie Children’s is one of the world leaders in POTS and patients are evaluated in our specialty POTS clinic. 

Learn More About Our POTS Program

Our Commitment to Innovative Research

As leaders in pediatric electrophysiology research, our team has led national research efforts and authored hundreds of publications.  A selection of our group’s contributions is below. Lurie Children’s Electrophysiology team has become synonymous with innovative management of heart rhythm diseases in children and adolescents.

Publications

Carberry T, Tsao S, Chaouki AS. Patient-activated anti-tachycardia pacing in adult congenital heart disease. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2022 Mar 9. doi: 10.1111/pace.14475. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35266171.

Hylind RJ, Pereira AC, Quiat D, Chandler SF, Roston TM, Pu WT, Bezzerides VJ, Seidman JG, Seidman CE, Abrams DJ. Population Prevalence of Premature Truncating Variants in Plakophilin-2 and Association With Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy: a UK Biobank Analysis. Circ Genom Precis Med. 2022 May 10:101161CIRCGEN121003507. doi: 10.1161/CIRCGEN.121.003507. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35536239.

Jefferies JL, Spar DS, Chaouki AS, Khoury PR, Casson P, Czosek RJ. Continuous Arrhythmia Monitoring in Pediatric and Adult Patients With Left Ventricular Noncompaction. Tex Heart Inst J. 2022 Mar 1;49(2):e207497. doi: 10.14503/THIJ-20-7497. PMID: 35395088.

Kannankeril PJ, Shoemaker MB, Fountain D, Roden DM, Yandell M, Tristani-Firouzi M, Etheridge SP, Webster G, George AL, McNally EM, MacLeod H, Burns KM. Family Screening After Sudden Death in a Population-Based Study of Children. Pediatrics. 2022 Apr 1;149(4):e2021054432. doi: 10.1542/peds.2021-054432. PMID: 35284934.

Khan RS, Pahl E, Dellefave-Castillo L, Rychlik K, Ing A, Yap KL, Brew C, Johnston JR, McNally EM, Webster G. Genotype and Cardiac Outcomes in Pediatric Dilated Cardiomyopathy. J Am Heart Assoc. 2022 Jan 4;11(1):e022854. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.121.022854. Epub 2021 Dec 22. PMID: 34935411; PMCID: PMC9075202.

Lopez Santibanez Jacome L, Dellefave-Castillo LM, Wicklund CA, Scherr CL, Duquette D, Webster G, Smith ME, Kalke K, Gordon AS, De Berg K, McNally EM, Rasmussen-Torvik LJ. Practitioners' Confidence and Desires for Education in Cardiovascular and Sudden Cardiac Death Genetics. J Am Heart Assoc. 2022 Apr 5;11(7):e023763. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.121.023763. Epub 2022 Mar 24. PMID: 35322684; PMCID: PMC9075463.

Magnetta DA, Reichhold A, Thrush PT, Monge M, Webster G, Joong A. Biventricular Assist Device Support for Intractable Arrhythmias From Histiocytoid Cardiomyopathy. ASAIO J. 2022 Apr 15:MAT.0000000000001715. doi: 10.1097/MAT.0000000000001715. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35439193.

Mannarino CN, Chaouki AS, de Regnier RA, Robinson DT. Hypophosphatemia in prematurity leading to complete heart block: A case report. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2022 Jan 24. doi: 10.1002/jpen.2335. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35075660.

Miyake CY, Lay EJ, Beach CM, Ceresnak SR, Delauz CM, Howard TS, Janson CM, Jardine K, Kannankeril PJ, Kava M, Kim JJ, Liberman L, Macicek SL, Pham TD, Robertson T, Valdes SO, Webster G, Stephens SB, Milewicz DM, Azamian M, Ehsan SA, Houck KM, Soler-Alfonso C, Glinton KE, Tosur M, Li N, Xu W, Lalani SR, Zhang L. Cardiac Crises: Cardiac Arrhythmias and Cardiomyopathy during TANGO2-deficiency related Metabolic Crises. Heart Rhythm. 2022 May 11:S1547-5271(22)01966-X. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2022.05.009. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35568137.

Carberry T, Balmert LC, Stanley S, Chaouki AS, Desai L, Tsao S, Ward K, Webster G. Persistence of Palpitations After Slow Pathway Modification for AVNRT in Young People. Pediatr Cardiol. 2021 Mar;42(3):590-596. doi: 10.1007/s00246-020-02519-4. Epub 2021 Jan 4. PMID: 33394109; PMCID: PMC8479320.

Desai L, Stefek H, Berhane H, Robinson J, Rigsby C, Markl M. Four-Dimensional flow Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Assessment of Pediatric Coarctation of the Aorta. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2022 Jan;55(1):200-208. doi: 10.1002/jmri.27802. Epub 2021 Jun 26. PMID: 34173693; PMCID: PMC9084555.

El Assaad I, Hammond BH, Kost LD, Worley S, Janson CM, Sherwin ED, Stephenson EA, Johnsrude CL, Niu M, Shetty I, Lawrence D, McCanta AC, Balaji S, Sanatani S, Fish F, Webster G, Aziz PF. Management and outcomes of atrial fibrillation in 241 healthy children and young adults: Revisiting "lone" atrial fibrillation-A multi-institutional PACES collaborative study. Heart Rhythm. 2021 Nov;18(11):1815-1822. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2021.07.066. Epub 2021 Jul 31. PMID: 34343691.

Hopkins KA, Webster G. Aberrated supraventricular tachycardia associated with neonatal fever and COVID-19 infection. BMJ Case Rep. 2021 Apr 30;14(4):e241846. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2021-241846. PMID: 33931425; PMCID: PMC8098937.

McAfee K, Rosenow WT, Cherny S, Collins CA, Balmert LC, Webster G. Abnormal Microarray, Clinical Outcomes, and Surgical Risk Scores in Young Children with Cardiac Disease. Pediatr Cardiol. 2021 Dec;42(8):1785-1791. doi: 10.1007/s00246-021-02664-4. Epub 2021 Jun 23. PMID: 34160654; PMCID: PMC8557123.

Püttgen KB, Hansen LM, Lauren C, Stefanko N, Mathes E, Olsen GM, Tollefson MM, Adams D, Baselga E, Chamlin S, Corey K, Frascari FF, Frieden IJ, Galligan ER, Gupta D, Haggstrom A, Horii K, Hornik CP, Klajn J, Liberman L, Mancini A, Mannschreck D, McGinness A, McCuaig C, Newell B, Nguyen H, Nopper A, Oyesanya T, Powell J, Reynolds M, Rios M, Siegel DH, Ward K, Garzon MC, Frommelt P, Drolet BA. Limited utility of repeated vital sign monitoring during initiation of oral propranolol for complicated infantile hemangioma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021 Aug;85(2):345-352. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.04.013. Epub 2020 Apr 11. PMID: 32289387.

Robinson JA, LaPage MJ, Atallah J, Webster G, Miyake CY, Ratnasamy C, Ollberding NJ, Mohan S, Von Bergen NH, Johnsrude CL, Garnreiter JM, Spar DS, Czosek RJ. Outcomes of Pediatric Patients With Defibrillators Following Initial Presentation With Sudden Cardiac Arrest. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2021 Feb;14(2):e008517. doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.120.008517. Epub 2021 Jan 5. PMID: 33401923; PMCID: PMC7887076.

Webster G. Revisiting atrial pacing in the long QT genotype era. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2021 Mar;32(3):790-791. doi: 10.1111/jce.14921. Epub 2021 Feb 10. PMID: 33527616; PMCID: PMC7954960.

Webster G, Aburawi EH, Chaix MA, Chandler S, Foo R, Islam AKMM, Kammeraad JAE, Rioux JD, Al-Gazali L, Sayeed MZ, Xiao T, Zhang H, Xie L, Hou C, Ing A, Yap KL, Wilde AAM, Bhuiyan ZA. Life-threatening arrhythmias with autosomal recessive TECRL variants. Europace. 2021 May 21;23(5):781-788. doi: 10.1093/europace/euaa376. PMID: 33367594; PMCID: PMC8139815.

Webster G, Balmert LC, Patel AB, Kociolek LK, Gevitz M, Olson R, Chaouki AS, El-Tayeb O, Monge MC, Backer C. Surveillance Cultures and Infection in 230 Pacemaker and Defibrillator Generator Changes in Pediatric and Adult Congenital Patients. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2021 May;12(3):331-336. doi: 10.1177/2150135120988631. PMID: 33942684; PMCID: PMC8494496.

Webster G, George AL Jr, McNally EM. Factors Affecting Yield of Genetic Testing of Sudden Deaths in Young Individuals-Reply. JAMA Cardiol. 2022 May 1;7(5):568-569. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2021.6026. PMID: 35195661.

Webster G, Patel AB, Carr MR, Rigsby CK, Rychlik K, Rowley AH, Robinson JD. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in children after recovery from symptomatic COVID-19 or MIS-C: a prospective study. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2021 Jul 1;23(1):86. doi: 10.1186/s12968-021-00786-5. PMID: 34193197; PMCID: PMC8245157.

Webster G, Puckelwartz MJ, Pesce LL, Dellefave-Castillo LM, Vanoye CG, Potet F, Page P, Kearns SD, Pottinger T, White S, Arunkumar P, Olson R, Kofman A, Ibrahim N, Ing A, Brew C, Yap KL, Kadri S, George AL Jr, McNally EM. Genomic Autopsy of Sudden Deaths in Young Individuals. JAMA Cardiol. 2021 Nov 1;6(11):1247-1256. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2021.2789. PMID: 34379075; PMCID: PMC8358810.

Webster G, Reynolds M, Arva NC, Dellefave-Castillo LM, McElligott HS, Kofman A, Laboski A, Magnetta D, George AL Jr, McNally EM, Puckelwartz MJ. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathy and ventricular arrhythmias associated with biallelic variants in C1QBP. Am J Med Genet A. 2021 Aug;185(8):2496-2501. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62262. Epub 2021 May 18. PMID: 34003581; PMCID: PMC8924900.

Webster G, Robinson JD. Editorial for "Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Follow-Up of Children After Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally Associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) and Initial Cardiac Involvement". J Magn Reson Imaging. 2022 Mar;55(3):892-894. doi: 10.1002/jmri.27926. Epub 2021 Sep 16. PMID: 34528325; PMCID: PMC8662045.

Whitehill RD, Balaji S, Kelleman M, Chandler SF, Abrams DJ, Mao C, Fischbach P, Campbell R. Exercise Recommendations in Pediatric HCM: Variation and Influence of Provider Characteristics. Pediatr Cardiol. 2022 Jan;43(1):132-141. doi: 10.1007/s00246-021-02703-0. Epub 2021 Aug 18. PMID: 34406429.

Whitehill RD, Chandler SF, DeWitt E, Abrams DJ, Walsh EP, Kelleman M, Mah DY. Lead age as a predictor for failure in pediatrics and congenital heart disease. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2021 Apr;44(4):586-594. doi: 10.1111/pace.14166. Epub 2021 Feb 24. PMID: 33432629.

Wittekind SG, Huang JH, Ward K, Koenig P. Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Training in Exercise Medicine: A General Needs Assessment. Pediatr Cardiol. 2021 Aug;42(6):1293-1296. doi: 10.1007/s00246-021-02610-4. Epub 2021 Apr 20. PMID: 33877419.

Carberry T, Hauck A, Backer C, Webster G. Right ventricular septal pacing via transmural approach for resynchronization in a child with postoperative heart block. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2020 Oct;43(10):1213-1216. doi: 10.1111/pace.14054. Epub 2020 Sep 12. PMID: 32885843; PMCID: PMC7584390.

Chandler SF, Chu E, Whitehill RD, Bevilacqua LM, Bezzerides VJ, DeWitt ES, Alexander ME, Abrams DJ, Triedman JK, Walsh EP, Mah DY. Adverse event rate during inpatient sotalol initiation for the management of supraventricular and ventricular tachycardia in the pediatric and young adult population. Heart Rhythm. 2020 Jun;17(6):984-990. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.01.022. Epub 2020 Feb 1. PMID: 32014568.

Chandler SF, Whitehill RD, DeWitt ES, Alexander ME, Thompson FF, Mah DY. Ultra-rapid atrial pacing as a form of rate control in postoperative automatic arrhythmias in patients with congenital heart disease. HeartRhythm Case Rep. 2020 Jan 9;6(4):215-218. doi: 10.1016/j.hrcr.2019.12.014. PMID: 32322500; PMCID: PMC7156973.

Cherny S, Olson R, Chiodo K, Balmert LC, Webster G. Changes in genetic variant results over time in pediatric cardiomyopathy and electrophysiology. J Genet Couns. 2021 Feb;30(1):229-236. doi: 10.1002/jgc4.1313. Epub 2020 Jul 24. PMID: 32706166; PMCID: PMC8188401.

Desai L, Wakai R, Tsao S, Strasburger J, Gotteiner N, Patel A. Fetal diagnosis of KCNQ1-variant long QT syndrome using fetal echocardiography and magnetocardiography. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2020 Apr;43(4):430-433. doi: 10.1111/pace.13900. Epub 2020 Apr 7. PMID: 32168391; PMCID: PMC7166171.

Hylind RJ, Chandler SF, Beausejour Ladouceur V, Jamal SM, Alexander ME, Mah DY, Phaneuf EA, DeWitt ES, Bezzerides VJ, Abrams DJ. Clinical and Genetic Findings in Children Presenting With Ventricular Fibrillation as the First Manifestation of Cardiovascular Disease. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020 May 18;9(10):e016322. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.119.016322. Epub 2020 May 11. PMID: 32389048; PMCID: PMC7660843.

Khaznadar R, Chandler SF, Chaouki AS, Tsao S, Webster G. Non-invasive Risk Stratification in Pediatric Ventricular Pre-excitation. Pediatr Cardiol. 2020 Apr;41(4):709-715. doi: 10.1007/s00246-020-02285-3. Epub 2020 Jan 23. PMID: 31974716; PMCID: PMC7261251.

Schoppen ZJ, Balmert LC, White S, Olson R, Arunkumar P, Dellefave-Castillo LM, Puckelwartz MJ, George AL Jr, McNally EM, Webster G. Prevalence of Abnormal Heart Weight After Sudden Death in People Younger than 40 Years of Age. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020 Sep 15;9(18):e015699. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.120.015699. Epub 2020 Sep 4. PMID: 32885733; PMCID: PMC7726998.

Stephens EH, Mongé MC, Eltayeb O, Patel A, Webster G, Cornicelli MD, Kennedy C, Popescu AR, Rigsby CK, Backer CL. Evolution and Current Results of a Unified Strategy for Sinus Venosus Surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2021 Mar;111(3):980-986. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.03.113. Epub 2020 May 11. PMID: 32437676.

Webster G, Carberry T, Berger S. Screening for prevention of sudden death in the young: what is new? Curr Opin Cardiol. 2020 Jan;35(1):80-86. doi: 10.1097/HCO.0000000000000689. PMID: 31574006; PMCID: PMC7988400.

Austin KM, Trembley MA, Chandler SF, Sanders SP, Saffitz JE, Abrams DJ, Pu WT. Molecular mechanisms of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2019 Sep;16(9):519-537. doi: 10.1038/s41569-019-0200-7. PMID: 31028357; PMCID: PMC6871180.

Crotti L, Spazzolini C, Tester DJ, Ghidoni A, Baruteau AE, Beckmann BM, Behr ER, Bennett JS, Bezzina CR, Bhuiyan ZA, Celiker A, Cerrone M, Dagradi F, De Ferrari GM, Etheridge SP, Fatah M, Garcia-Pavia P, Al-Ghamdi S, Hamilton RM, Al-Hassnan ZN, Horie M, Jimenez-Jaimez J, Kanter RJ, Kaski JP, Kotta MC, Lahrouchi N, Makita N, Norrish G, Odland HH, Ohno S, Papagiannis J, Parati G, Sekarski N, Tveten K, Vatta M, Webster G, Wilde AAM, Wojciak J, George AL, Ackerman MJ, Schwartz PJ. Calmodulin mutations and life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias: insights from the International Calmodulinopathy Registry. Eur Heart J. 2019 Sep 14;40(35):2964-2975. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehz311. PMID: 31170290; PMCID: PMC6748747.

Desai L, Balmert L, Reichek J, Hauck A, Gambetta K, Webster G. Electrocardiograms for cardiomyopathy risk stratification in children with anthracycline exposure. Cardiooncology. 2019 Aug 7;5:10. doi: 10.1186/s40959-019-0045-6. PMID: 32154016; PMCID: PMC7048097.

Desai LP, Berhane H, Husain N, Robinson JD, Rigsby CK, Markl M. Altered 4-D magnetic resonance imaging flow characteristics in complex congenital aortic arch repair. Pediatr Radiol. 2020 Jan;50(1):17-27. doi: 10.1007/s00247-019-04507-0. Epub 2019 Aug 31. PMID: 31473788; PMCID: PMC6943192.

DeWitt ES, Chandler SF, Hylind RJ, Beausejour Ladouceur V, Blume ED, VanderPluym C, Powell AJ, Fynn-Thompson F, Roberts AE, Sanders SP, Bezzerides V, Lakdawala NK, MacRae CA, Abrams DJ. Phenotypic Manifestations of Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy in Children and Adolescents. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Jul 23;74(3):346-358. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.05.022. PMID: 31319917; PMCID: PMC7261020.

Houck CA, Chandler SF, Bogers AJJC, Triedman JK, Walsh EP, de Groot NMS, Abrams DJ. Arrhythmia Mechanisms and Outcomes of Ablation in Pediatric Patients With Congenital Heart Disease. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2019 Nov;12(11):e007663. doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.119.007663. Epub 2019 Nov 14. PMID: 31722541.

Hylind RJ, Chandler SF, Beausejour Ladouceur V, Roberts AE, Bezzerides V, Christensen KD, Coggins M, Lakdawala NK, MacRae CA, Abrams DJ. Phenotypic Characterization of Individuals With Variants in Cardiovascular Genes in the Absence of a Primary Cardiovascular Indication for Testing. Circ Genom Precis Med. 2019 Mar;12(3):e002463. doi: 10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002463. PMID: 30919684.

Webster G, Olson R, Balmert LC, Cherny S, George AL Jr. Reply: Familial Hypercholesterolemia Causes Sudden Death. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Dec 10;74(23):2952-2953. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.09.061. PMID: 31806143; PMCID: PMC7906250.

Webster G, Olson R, Schoppen ZJ, Giancola N, Balmert LC, Cherny S, George AL Jr. Cardiac Evaluation of Children With a Family History of Sudden Death. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Aug 13;74(6):759-770. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.05.062. PMID: 31395126; PMCID: PMC6690372.

Wolf AE, Marino BS, Chaouki AS, Andrei AC, Gossett JG. Pediatric Acute Myocarditis: Predicting Hemodynamic Compromise at Presentation to Health Care. Hosp Pediatr. 2019 Jun;9(6):455-459. doi: 10.1542/hpeds.2018-0212. PMID: 31147385.

Hurst IA, Webster G, Machut KZ, Gotteiner N, Chaouki AS, Groothuis EN, Murthy K. Structured inpatient evaluation of neonatal cardiac ectopy. J Perinatol. 2018 Jun;38(6):696-701. doi: 10.1038/s41372-018-0089-8. Epub 2018 Mar 7. PMID: 29515227.

Jain P. G., Chaouki AS (2018). The Use of Electrocardiography in the Emergency DepartmentClinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 19(4), 317-322.

Liu G, MacLeod H, Webster G, McNally EM, O'Neill SM, Dellefave-Castillo L. Genetic Counselors' Approach To Postmortem Genetic Testing After Sudden Death: An Exploratory Study. Acad Forensic Pathol. 2018 Sep;8(3):738-751. doi: 10.1177/1925362118797748. Epub 2018 Aug 31. PMID: 31240068; PMCID: PMC6490591.

Campbell MJ, Zhou X, Han C, Abrishami H, Webster G, Miyake CY, Sower CT, Anderson JB, Knilans TK, Czosek RJ. Pilot study analyzing automated ECG screening of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Heart Rhythm. 2017 Jun;14(6):848-852. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2017.02.011. Epub 2017 Feb 11. PMID: 28193509.

Chandler SF, Fynn-Thompson F, Mah DY. Role of cardiac pacing in congenital complete heart block. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2017 Nov;15(11):853-861. doi: 10.1080/14779072.2017.1376655. Epub 2017 Sep 13. PMID: 28875729.

Chaouki AS, Czosek RJ. Reply to the Editor- Risk factors for complications in the implantation of epicardial pacemakers in neonates and infants. Heart Rhythm. 2017 Jul;14(7):e53-e54. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2017.03.022. Epub 2017 Apr 4. PMID: 28389306.

Chaouki AS, Spar DS, Khoury PR, Anderson JB, Knilans TK, Morales DL, Czosek RJ. Risk factors for complications in the implantation of epicardial pacemakers in neonates and infants. Heart Rhythm. 2017 Feb;14(2):206-210. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2016.10.017. Epub 2016 Oct 15. PMID: 27756705.

Hinsley K, Evans-Langhorst M, Porter C, Chandler S, VanderPluym C, Triedman J, Bezzerides VJ. Low molecular weight heparin as an anticoagulation strategy for left-sided ablation procedures. Congenit Heart Dis. 2018 Mar;13(2):222-225. doi: 10.1111/chd.12551. Epub 2017 Nov 27. PMID: 29181868.

Knadler JJ, Anderson JB, Chaouki AS, Czosek RJ, Connor C, Knilans TK, Spar DS. Utility and safety of the SafeSept™ transseptal guidewire for electrophysiology studies with catheter ablation in pediatric and congenital heart disease. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2017 Apr;48(3):369-374. doi: 10.1007/s10840-017-0224-z. Epub 2017 Jan 14. PMID: 28091832.

Kusumoto FM, Bailey KR, Chaouki AS, Deshmukh AJ, Gautam S, Kim RJ, Kramer DB, Lambrakos LK, Nasser NH, Sorajja D. Systematic Review for the 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 Oct 2;72(14):1653-1676. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.10.052. Epub 2017 Oct 30. Erratum in: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 Oct 2;72(14):1756. PMID: 29097297.

McBride ME, Marino BS, Webster G, Lopez-Herce J, Ziegler CP, De Caen AR, Atkins DL. Amiodarone Versus Lidocaine for Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Due to Ventricular Arrhythmias: A Systematic Review. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017 Feb;18(2):183-189. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000001026. PMID: 28009655.

Miyake CY, Asaki SY, Webster G, Czosek RJ, Atallah J, Avasarala K, Rao SO, Thomas PE, Kim JJ, Valdes SO, de la Uz C, Wang Y, Wehrens XHT, Abrams D. Circadian Variation of Ventricular Arrhythmias in Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia. JACC Clin Electrophysiol. 2017 Nov;3(11):1308-1317. doi: 10.1016/j.jacep.2017.05.004. Epub 2017 Aug 30. PMID: 29759629; PMCID: PMC7269550.

Patel A, Webster G, Ward K, Lantos J. A survey of paediatricians on the use of electrocardiogram for pre-participation sports screening. Cardiol Young. 2017 Jul;27(5):884-889. doi: 10.1017/S1047951116001529. Epub 2016 Oct 10. PMID: 27719691.

Webster G. Aiming at a Blurry Target: Optimal Therapy for Postoperative JET. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2017 Nov;8(6):691-693. doi: 10.1177/2150135117738009. PMID: 29187111.

Webster G, Schoppen ZJ, George AL Jr. Treatment of calmodulinopathy with verapamil. BMJ Case Rep. 2017 Aug 7;2017:bcr2017220568. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2017-220568. PMID: 28784889; PMCID: PMC5623240.

Webster G, Ward K, Deal BJ, Anderson JB, Tsao S. Adaptation of Radiology Software to Improve Cardiology Results Reporting. Appl Clin Inform. 2017;8(3):936-944. doi: 10.4338/ACI-2017-03-RA-0051. Epub 2017 Dec 20. PMID: 30027537; PMCID: PMC6220700.

Campbell MJ, Zhou X, Han C, Abrishami H, Webster G, Miyake CY, Knilans TK, Czosek RJ. Electrocardiography Screening for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2016 Sep;39(9):944-50. doi: 10.1111/pace.12913. Epub 2016 Aug 5. PMID: 27346569.

Chaouki AS, Czosek RJ, Spar DS. Missing LINQ: extrusion of a new-generation implantable loop recorder in a child. Cardiol Young. 2016 Oct;26(7):1445-7. doi: 10.1017/S1047951116000913. Epub 2016 Jun 20. PMID: 27323215.

Patel A, Webster G, Ward K, Lantos J. A survey of paediatricians on the use of electrocardiogram for pre-participation sports screening. Cardiol Young. 2017 Jul;27(5):884-889. doi: 10.1017/S1047951116001529. Epub 2016 Oct 10. PMID: 27719691.

Pipilas DC, Johnson CN, Webster G, Schlaepfer J, Fellmann F, Sekarski N, Wren LM, Ogorodnik KV, Chazin DM, Chazin WJ, Crotti L, Bhuiyan ZA, George AL Jr. Novel calmodulin mutations associated with congenital long QT syndrome affect calcium current in human cardiomyocytes. Heart Rhythm. 2016 Oct;13(10):2012-9. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2016.06.038. Epub 2016 Jul 1. PMID: 27374306; PMCID: PMC5035189.

Robinson E, Kaushal S, Alaboson J, Sharma S, Belagodu A, Watkins C, Walker B, Webster G, McCarthy P, Ho D. Combinatorial release of dexamethasone and amiodarone from a nano-structured parylene-C film to reduce perioperative inflammation and atrial fibrillation. Nanoscale. 2016 Feb 21;8(7):4267-75. doi: 10.1039/c5nr07456h. PMID: 26838117.

Alvarado AM, Ward KM, Muntz DS, Thompson AA, Rodeghier M, Fernhall B, Liem RI. Heart rate recovery is impaired after maximal exercise testing in children with sickle cell anemia. J Pediatr. 2015 Feb;166(2):389-93.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.10.064. Epub 2014 Dec 2. PMID: 25477159; PMCID: PMC4308440.

Deal BJ, Costello JM, Webster G, Tsao S, Backer CL, Mavroudis C. Intermediate-Term Outcome of 140 Consecutive Fontan Conversions With Arrhythmia Operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 2016 Feb;101(2):717-24. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2015.09.017. Epub 2015 Nov 18. PMID: 26602004.

Freud LR, Webster G, Costello JM, Tsao S, Rychlik K, Backer CL, Deal BJ. Growth and Obesity Among Older Single Ventricle Patients Presenting for Fontan Conversion. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2015 Oct;6(4):514-20. doi: 10.1177/2150135115598212. PMID: 26467864; PMCID: PMC7050720.

Webster G, Monge MC. Left Cardiac Sympathetic Denervation: Should We Sweat the Side Effects? Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2015 Oct;8(5):1007-9. doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.115.003413. PMID: 26487619.

Kopelovich JC, Baker MS, Potash A, Desai L, Allen RC, Chang EH. The hybrid lid crease approach to address lateral frontal sinus disease with orbital extension. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2014 Dec;123(12):826-30. doi: 10.1177/0003489414538767. Epub 2014 Jun 18. PMID: 24944279; PMCID: PMC4301847.

Webster G, Panek KA, Labella M, Taylor GA, Gauvreau K, Cecchin F, Martuscello M, Walsh EP, Berul CI, DeMaso DR. Psychiatric functioning and quality of life in young patients with cardiac rhythm devices. Pediatrics. 2014 Apr;133(4):e964-72. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-1394. Epub 2014 Mar 24. PMID: 24664095; PMCID: PMC3966499.

Cook SC, Valente AM, Maul TM, Dew MA, Hickey J, Jennifer Burger P, Harmon A, Clair M, Webster G, Cecchin F, Khairy P; Alliance for Adult Research in Congenital Cardiology. Shock-related anxiety and sexual function in adults with congenital heart disease and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Heart Rhythm. 2013 Jun;10(6):805-10. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2013.02.016. Epub 2013 Feb 17. PMID: 23422223.

Daly KP, Chandler SF, Almond CS, Singh TP, Mah H, Milford E, Matte GS, Bastardi HJ, Mayer JE, Fynn-Thompson F, Blume ED. Antibody depletion for the treatment of crossmatch-positive pediatric heart transplant recipients. Pediatr Transplant. 2013 Nov;17(7):661-9. doi: 10.1111/petr.12131. Epub 2013 Aug 6. PMID: 23919762; PMCID: PMC3843490.

Miyake CY, Webster G, Czosek RJ, Kantoch MJ, Dubin AM, Avasarala K, Atallah J. Efficacy of implantable cardioverter defibrillators in young patients with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia: success depends on substrate. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2013 Jun;6(3):579-87. doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.113.000170. Epub 2013 May 11. PMID: 23667268.

Seslar SP, Kugler J, Batra AS, Collins KK, Crosson J, Dubin AM, Etheridge S, Kanter R, Papez A, Radbill AE, Serwer GA, Tanel RE, Tsao S, Webster G, Saarel EV; Pediatric & Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) MAP-IT Taskforce. The Multicenter Pediatric and Adult Congenital EP Quality (MAP-IT) Initiative-rationale and design: report from the pediatric and congenital electrophysiology society's MAP-IT taskforce. Congenit Heart Dis. 2013 Sep-Oct;8(5):381-92. doi: 10.1111/chd.12084. Epub 2013 May 13. PMID: 23663492.

Walsh EP, Bar-Cohen Y, Batra AS, Dick M 2nd, Erickson C, Fish F, Hamilton RM, Kanter RJ, Reed JH, Van Hare GF, Vetter VL, Webster G, Walsh EP, Bar-Cohen Y, Hamilton RM, Reed JH, Van Hare GF; Training and Credentialing Committee of the Pediatricand Congenital Electrophysiology Society. Recommendations for advanced fellowship training in clinical pediatric and congenital electrophysiology: a report from the training and credentialing committee of the pediatric and congenital electrophysiology society. Heart Rhythm. 2013 May;10(5):775-81. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2013.03.040. PMID: 23611645.

Webster G. Assessing ventricular scar in tetralogy of Fallot. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2013 Oct;6(5):833-4. doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.113.000920. PMID: 24129204.

Webster G, Berul CI. An update on channelopathies: from mechanisms to management. Circulation. 2013 Jan 1;127(1):126-40. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.060343. PMID: 23283857.

Boe BA, Webster G, Asher Y, Tsao S, Suresh S, Steinhorn DM. Percutaneous, ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion nerve block suppresses recurrent ventricular fibrillation in an infant awaiting heart transplant. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2012 Oct;5(5):e93-4. doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.112.974329. PMID: 23074329.

Radbill AE, Triedman JK, Berul CI, Walsh EP, Alexander ME, Webster G, Cecchin F. Prospective evaluation of defibrillation threshold and postshock rhythm in young ICD recipients. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2012 Dec;35(12):1487-93. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8159.2012.03519.x. Epub 2012 Sep 14. PMID: 22978847; PMCID: PMC7059359.

Desai L, Oprescu F, DiMeo A, Morcuende JA. Bracing in the treatment of children with clubfoot: past, present, and future. Iowa Orthop J. 2010;30:15-23. PMID: 21045966; PMCID: PMC2958265.

Webster G, Berul CI. Safety first: protecting the heart, then the head. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2010 Apr;3(2):118-9. doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.110.947317. PMID: 20407104.

Parker MG, Webster G, Insoft RM. A premature infant with fetal myocardial and abdominal calcifications and factor V Leiden homozygosity. J Perinatol. 2009 Nov;29(11):771-3. doi: 10.1038/jp.2009.62. PMID: 19861970; PMCID: PMC4241858.

Tsao S, Deal BJ, Backer CL, Ward K, Franklin WH, Mavroudis C. Device management of arrhythmias after Fontan conversion. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009 Oct;138(4):937-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2008.11.066. Epub 2009 Jun 17. PMID: 19660377.

Penn JK, Graham P, Deshpande G, Calhoun G, Chaouki AS, Salz HK, Schedl P. Functioning of the Drosophila Wilms'-tumor-1-associated protein homolog, Fl(2)d, in Sex-lethal-dependent alternative splicing. Genetics. 2008 Feb;178(2):737-48. doi: 10.1534/genetics.107.081679. Epub 2008 Feb 3. PMID: 18245840; PMCID: PMC2248336.

Webster G, Berul CI. Congenital long-QT syndromes: a clinical and genetic update from infancy through adulthood. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2008 Aug;18(6):216-24. doi: 10.1016/j.tcm.2008.11.002. PMID: 19185812; PMCID: PMC4260467.

Webster G, Jordao L, Martuscello M, Mahajan T, Alexander ME, Cecchin F, Triedman JK, Walsh EP, Berul CI. Digital music players cause interference with interrogation telemetry for pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators without affecting device function. Heart Rhythm. 2008 Apr;5(4):545-50. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2008.02.033. Epub 2008 Mar 4. PMID: 18362020; PMCID: PMC4260473.

Webster G, Margossian R, Alexander ME, Cecchin F, Triedman JK, Walsh EP, Berul CI. Impact of transvenous ventricular pacing leads on tricuspid regurgitation in pediatric and congenital heart disease patients. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2008 Jan;21(1):65-8. doi: 10.1007/s10840-007-9183-0. Epub 2007 Nov 27. PMID: 18040765; PMCID: PMC4260457.

Mavroudis C, Backer CL, Deal BJ, Stewart RD, Franklin WH, Tsao S, Ward K. Evolving anatomic and electrophysiologic considerations associated with Fontan conversion. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu. 2007:136-45. doi: 10.1053/j.pcsu.2007.01.018. PMID: 17434005.

Mavroudis C, Deal BJ, Backer CL, Stewart RD, Franklin WH, Tsao S, Ward KM, DeFreitas RA. J. Maxwell Chamberlain Memorial Paper for congenital heart surgery. 111 Fontan conversions with arrhythmia surgery: surgical lessons and outcomes. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007 Nov;84(5):1457-65; discussion 1465-6. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2007.06.079. PMID: 17954046.

Chaouki AS, Salz HK. Drosophila SPF45: a bifunctional protein with roles in both splicing and DNA repair. PLoS Genet. 2006 Dec 8;2(12):e178. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0020178. PMID: 17154718; PMCID: PMC1687153.

Webster G, Zhang J, Rosenthal D. Comparison of the epidemiology and co-morbidities of heart failure in the pediatric and adult populations: a retrospective, cross-sectional study. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2006 May 25;6:23. doi: 10.1186/1471-2261-6-23. PMID: 16725044; PMCID: PMC1533861.

Paris JJ, Webster G. Back to the future: overcoming reluctance to honor in-school DNAR orders. Am J Bioeth. 2005 Winter;5(1):67-9; author reply W19-21. doi: 10.1080/15265160590927935. PMID: 16036668.

Ward KM, Binns H, Chin C, Webber SA, Canter CE, Pahl E. Pediatric heart transplantation for anthracycline cardiomyopathy: cancer recurrence is rare. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2004 Sep;23(9):1040-5. doi: 10.1016/j.healun.2003.08.014. PMID: 15454169.

 

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