Approximately three infants out of 1,000 are born with hearing loss each year. If hearing loss is not identified and treated early, it can impede speech, language, and cognitive development. The State of Illinois mandates that all infants receive a hearing screening prior to discharge from the birth hospital.
Risk Factors for Hearing Loss
The following are common risk factors for hearing loss:
- Caregiver concern regarding hearing, speech, language or developmental delay
- Family history of permanent childhood hearing loss
- Neonatal intensive care (NICU) for more than five days
- In utero infections, such as CMV, herpes, rubella, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis
- Craniofacial anomalies, including those that involve the pinna, ear canal, ear tags, ear pits and temporal bone anomalies
- Syndromes associated with hearing loss or progressive or late-onset hearing loss, such as neurofibromatosis, osteopetrosis and Usher syndrome; other frequently identified syndromes include Waardenburg, Alport, Pendred and Jervell and Lange-Nielson
- Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Hunter syndrome, or sensory motor neuropathies, such as Friedreich ataxia and Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome
- Culture-positive postnatal infections associated with sensorineural hearing loss, including confirmed bacterial and viral (especially herpes viruses and varicella) meningitis.
We recommend hearing evaluations for children who:
- Do not startle to loud sounds
- Constantly ask people to repeat themselves
- Have trouble paying attention and seem distracted
- Have difficulty hearing on the phone
- Increase the volume on their TVs or iPods
- Are not doing well in school
- Have missed or failed a school hearing test
- Have a speech and language delay
- Have had chemotherapy
- Have tested positive after birth for herpes, varicella or meningitis
- Have had a head trauma, especially a skull or temporal bone fracture that requires hospitalization
No child is too young to receive a hearing test. The specific testing techniques that are used depending on the child’s age, developmental level, and cooperation.