BACKGROUND: Proliferation signal inhibitors, such as sirolimus, are increasingly used in solid-organ transplantation. However, limited data exist on sirolimus-treated pediatric patients. We aimed to describe sirolimus use in pediatric heart transplant patients and test the hypothesis that sirolimus use is associated with improved outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review and propensity-matched analysis of the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study database was performed on patients undergoing primary heart transplantation from 2004 to 2013 with at least 1 year of follow-up comparing patients treated vs not treated with sirolimus at 1 year after transplant. The primary outcome of interest was patient survival, with secondary outcomes including cardiac allograft vasculopathy, rejection, malignancy, and renal insufficiency. RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2013, 2,531 patients underwent transplantation. At least 1 year of follow-up was available for 2,080 patients, of whom 144 (7%) were on sirolimus at 1 year post-transplant. Sirolimus-treated and non-treated patients had similar survival in the overall cohorts and in the propensity-matched analysis. The secondary outcomes measures were also similar, including a composite end point of all outcome measures. There was a trend toward increased time to cardiac allograft vasculopathy (p = 0.09) and decreased time to infection (p = 0.05) among sirolimus-treated patients in the overall cohort (p = 0.19) but not in the propensity-matched cohort (p = 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Sirolimus was used in less than 10% of patients at 1 year post-transplant. Overall outcomes of sirolimus treated and non-treated patients were similar with respect to survival and major transplant adverse events. Further study of sirolimus in pediatric heart transplant patients is needed.