RATIONALE: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is associated with post-prematurity respiratory disease (PRD) in survivors of extreme preterm birth. Identifying early biomarkers that correlate with later development of BPD and PRD may provide insights for intervention. In a preterm baboon model, elevated gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is associated with BPD, and GRP inhibition mitigates BPD occurrence. OBJECTIVE: We performed a prospective cohort study to investigate whether urine GRP levels obtained in the first postnatal week were associated with BPD, PRD, and other urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress. METHODS: Extremely low gestational age infants (23-28 completed weeks) were enrolled in a US multicenter observational study, The Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01435187). We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between urine GRP in the first postnatal week and multiple respiratory outcomes: BPD, defined as supplemental oxygen use at 36 + 0 weeks postmenstrual age, and post-PRD, defined by positive quarterly surveys for increased medical utilization over the first year (PRD score). RESULTS: A total of 109 of 257 (42%) infants had BPD, and 120 of 217 (55%) had PRD. On adjusted analysis, GRP level more than 80 was associated with BPD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.25) and positive PRD score (aOR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.35-4.48). Urine GRP levels correlated with duration of NICU ventilatory and oxygen support and with biomarkers of oxidative stress: allantoin and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. CONCLUSIONS: Urine GRP in the first postnatal week was associated with concurrent urine biomarkers of oxidative stress and with later diagnoses of BPD and PRD.