PURPOSE: Ureteral complications following renal transplantation are more common in children than in adults. We identify potential risk factors for ureteral complications in pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied a cohort of patients who underwent renal transplantation at Lurie Children's Hospital between 2004 and 2016. We analyzed the associations between patient characteristics, operative factors, graft characteristics and postoperative complications. RESULTS: A total of 224 renal transplantations in 219 patients were identified. Preexisting bladder pathology was present in 25% of cases. Overall rate of ureteral complications was 16%, with symptomatic vesicoureteral reflux being the most common. Ureteral complications were seen significantly more frequently in patients with underlying bladder pathology (26% vs 12%, p = 0.01). Rate of postoperative vesicoureteral reflux in patients with bladder pathology was lower when a urologist performed the reimplantation but the difference was not statistically significant (15% vs 27%, p = 0.35). Urologists were significantly more likely to perform the ureteral anastomosis in patients on clean intermittent catheterization (85% vs 43%, p = 0.004) and in patients with a history of complex bladder reconstruction (75% vs 28%, p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with existing bladder pathology are at increased risk for ureteral complications, particularly vesicoureteral reflux. Since pediatric urologists routinely perform ureteral reimplantation in patients with existing bladder pathology, these patients may benefit from a multidisciplinary approach between urology and transplant surgery at renal transplantation.