Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant contributor to death and disability in children. Considering the prevalence of pediatric TBI, it is important for the clinician to be aware of evidence-based recommendations for the care of these patients. The first edition of the Guidelines for the Acute Medical Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Infants, Children, and Adolescents was published in 2003. The Guidelines were updated in 2012, with significant changes in the recommendations for hyperosmolar therapy, temperature control, hyperventilation, corticosteroids, glucose therapy, and seizure prophylaxis. Many of these interventions have implications in the perioperative period, and it is the responsibility of the anesthesiologist to be familiar with these guidelines.