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Under Pressure to Perform: Impact of Academic Goal Orientation, School Motivational Climate, and School Engagement on Pain and Somatic Symptoms in Adolescents

Randall, E. T.; Shapiro, J. B.; Smith, K. R.; Jervis, K. N.; Logan, D. E.

Clin J Pain. 2019 Sep 13; 35(12):967-974

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Various academic factors are known to influence pain and somatic symptoms in adolescents, but the roles of academic goal orientation, school motivational climate, and school engagement are unknown. This study examined how these understudied academic factors are associated with adolescent pain and somatic symptoms and whether sex moderates the relations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High school students (n=90) from a high-achieving community completed questionnaires assessing academic variables, various pain characteristics, and somatic symptoms. RESULTS: The majority of adolescents (67%) experienced pain and somatic symptoms in the past month, with 56% reporting multisite pain and 58% reporting at least 1 severe somatic symptom. Headache and abdominal pain were the most frequently reported "most bothersome" pains, and pain was rated, on average, as moderately severe, typically occurring several times per month, and was primarily chronic in nature (duration, ≥3 mo). Higher levels of ego goal orientation and perceived performance motivational climate were associated with more somatic symptoms, and ego goal orientation was also associated with more intense and frequent pain. Alternatively, greater school engagement was associated with fewer somatic symptoms. Task goal orientation and mastery motivational climate were unassociated with all pain and somatic symptom outcomes. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrates that adolescents from a high-achieving community report more somatic symptoms and pain when they are less engaged in school and when their academic focus is on grades and outperforming peers. Results suggest that de-emphasizing competition and performance outcomes may support physical well-being in adolescents.

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