OBJECTIVE: Surgical repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection is associated with significant mortality and morbidity, especially in patients with single-ventricle physiology. This study analyzes total anomalous pulmonary venous connection surgical repair results at one institution to identify trends and indicators of positive outcome. METHODS: Our cardiac surgery database identified 100 patients undergoing surgical repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (1990-2008): supracardiac (52), cardiac (15), infracardiac (23), and mixed (10). The median age at repair was 14.6 days (range, 0-4 years), and the median weight was 3.5 kg (range, 1.3-15 kg). Patients were divided into 2 groups: biventricular (n = 83) or single-ventricle (n = 17) physiology. All but 1 of the patients with single-ventricle physiology had heterotaxy syndrome (94%), and 13 of 17 patients had supracardiac anatomy. RESULTS: There were 12 operative deaths (4 in the biventricular group [5%] and 8 in the single-ventricle group [47%], P < .01) and 9 late deaths (6 in the biventricular group [7%] and 3 in the single-ventricle group [18%], P < .05). Death by total anomalous pulmonary venous connection type was supracardiac (12/52; 23.1%), cardiac (1/15; 6.7%), infracardiac (3/23; 13.0%), and mixed (5/10; 50%). Pulmonary venous obstruction was present in 22 patients in the biventricular group (27%) and in 7 patients in the single-ventricle group (41%; P = .25). Mortality was 9 of 29 (31%) in those with pulmonary venous obstruction and 12 of 71 (17%) in those with nonpulmonary venous obstruction (P = .23). Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest was used in 38 patients (27 in the biventricular group, 32.5%; 11 in the single-ventricle group, 64.7%). Mean deep hypothermic circulatory arrest time was 31.4 +/- 10.7 minutes (P = not significant between groups). Median postoperative length of stay was 11 days (range, 0-281 days). Nineteen patients required reoperation for pulmonary venous stenosis (14 in the biventricular group and 5 in the single-ventricle group. P = .045); the median time to reoperation was 104 days (range, 4-753 days). CONCLUSION: Patients with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection with biventricular anatomy have good outcomes. Patients with single-ventricle anatomy have higher mortality and increased risk for pulmonary vein stenosis requiring reoperation. Mortality is highest in patients with mixed-type total anomalous pulmonary venous connection.