OBJECTIVES: The American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Emergency Medicine's Simulation Interest Group developed a survey targeting pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) fellowship program directors to assess the use of high-fidelity simulation (HFS) in PEM fellow training. METHODS: Content experts in simulation and in PEM developed a 38-item Internet-based questionnaire that was distributed to PEM program directors via e-mail though www.surveymonkey.com. RESULTS: Seventy-seven percent (51/66) of PEM program directors in the United States and Canada responded to the survey. Sixty-three percent of programs incorporate HFS in PEM fellowship training. For programs with HFS, the most frequent uses of HFS include (1) decision making for trauma resuscitations (97%, 31/32) and medical emergencies (91%, 29/32), and for the application of advanced life support (84%, 27/32); (2) technical skills: intubation (100%, 31/31), bag-mask ventilation (94%, 29/31), cardioversion/defibrillation (90%, 28/31), and difficult airway management (84%, 26/31). Of program directors without simulation, a majority valued simulation for PEM fellow training, and 59% (11/19) plan on expanding efforts. Perceived barriers to an active simulation program exist: lack of financial support (79%, 15/19), lack of simulator equipment (74%, 14/19), lack of a dedicated physical space (68%, 13/19), and insufficiently experienced simulation faculty (58% 11/19). CONCLUSIONS: Sixty-three percent of PEM fellowship programs integrate HFS-based activities. The majority of PEM fellowship program directors value the role of HFS in augmenting clinical experience and documenting procedural skills. Regional simulation centers are one possible solution to offer HFS training to fellowships with limited financial support and/or lack of experienced simulation faculty.