BACKGROUND: At our institution, the arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries has transitioned from the Gore-Tex patch (W.L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, AZ) for pulmonary artery reconstruction to redundant pantaloon pericardial patch (RPPP). The (U-shaped) coronary artery button was used for coronary reimplantation. This study investigates overall mortality and factors for neopulmonary artery, neoaortic, and coronary artery surgical reintervention. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent arterial switch between 1983 and 2007. Our surgical database, operative reports, and cardiology clinic charts were reviewed. Time to event was plotted as Kaplan-Meier curves. Predictors of time-to-event were examined using Cox proportional hazard modeling. RESULTS: A total of 258 patients underwent arterial switch during the study. Mortality declined from 15% (era I: 1983 to 1990) to 11% (era II: 1991 to 1998) to 7% (era III: 1999 to 2007). Era III had a significantly later time to death compared with era I (hazard ratio [HR] 0.62, p = 0.04). The RPPP had a lower neopulmonary artery reintervention rate compared with Gore-Tex; 9 of 225 (4%) versus 3 of 21 (14%), p = 0.008. Complex anatomy increased risk for neopulmonary reintervention (HR 3.3, p = 0.03). Surgical reintervention rate for coronary arteries was 2%. Complex coronary anatomy (HR 17.9, p = 0.01) predicted coronary reintervention. Predictors of neoaortic reintervention were prior pulmonary artery band (HR 4.3, p = 0.03), complex anatomy (HR 3.5, p = 0.01), and coronary artery anatomy (HR 3.5, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Arterial switch operation mortality has decreased. Conversion to RPPP reduced neopulmonary artery reintervention. The (U-shaped) coronary artery button technique is associated with low coronary reintervention rates. Complex coronary anatomy increases coronary and aortic reintervention. Prior pulmonary artery banding and complex anatomy increase aortic reintervention.