The mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) disorders are ultra-rare lysosomal storage disorders associated with progressive accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in cells and tissues throughout the body. Clinical manifestations and progression rates vary widely across and within the different types of MPS. Neurological symptoms occur frequently, and may result directly from brain damage caused by infiltration of GAGs, or develop secondary to somatic manifestations such as spinal cord compression, hydrocephalus, and peripheral nerve entrapment. Management of secondary neurological manifestations often requires surgical correction of the underlying somatic cause. The present review discusses the surgical management of neurological disease in patients with MPS, including diagnostic imaging. Background information is derived from presentations and discussions during a meeting on the brain in MPS, attended by an international group of experts (April 28-30, 2016, Stockholm, Sweden), and additional literature searches.