Should wheat, barley, rye, and/or gluten be avoided in a 6-food elimination diet?

Kliewer, K. L.; Venter, C.; Cassin, A. M.; Abonia, J. P.; Aceves, S. S.; Bonis, P. A.; Dellon, E. S.; Falk, G. W.; Furuta, G. T.; Gonsalves, N.; Gupta, S. K.; Hirano, I.; Kagalwalla, A.; Leung, J.; Mukkada, V. A.; Spergel, J. M.; Rothenberg, M. E.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Jan 5; 137(4):1011-4

Abstract

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a food antigen-mediated disease, is effectively treated with the dietary elimination of 6 foods commonly associated with food allergies (milk, wheat, egg, soy, tree nuts/peanuts, and fish/shellfish). Because wheat shares homologous proteins (including gluten) with barley and rye and can also be processed with these grains, some clinicians have suggested that barley and rye might also trigger EoE as a result of cross-reaction and/or cross-contamination with wheat. In this article, we discuss the theoretical risks of cross-reactivity and cross-contamination among wheat, barley, and rye proteins (including gluten); assess common practices at EoE treatment centers; and provide recommendations for dietary treatment and future studies of EoE.

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