Risk factors for ocular complications in periocular infantile hemangiomas

Samuelov, L.; Kinori, M.; Rychlik, K.; Konanur, M.; Chamlin, S. L.; Rahmani, B.; Mancini, A. J.

Pediatr Dermatol. 2018 May 17; 35(4):458-462

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Infantile hemangiomas are the most common benign tumors of childhood. Although some children with periocular infantile hemangiomas do not require treatment, these lesions may result in amblyopia and visual impairment if not properly treated. We have attempted to characterize clinical features of periocular infantile hemangiomas that predict negative ocular outcomes and thus require prompt referral to an ophthalmologist and initiation of therapy. METHODS: This study included children with periocular infantile hemangiomas consecutively seen at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago from January 1994 through December 2014. Only patients evaluated by both a dermatologist and an ophthalmologist were included. Medical records of patients who met inclusion criteria were reviewed. Ocular findings were reviewed for the presence of ptosis, refractive errors, strabismus, proptosis, and amblyopia. RESULTS: Ninety-six patients (74% female, median age of onset 0.48 months) were included. Periocular infantile hemangiomas larger than 1 cm in diameter, with a deep component, and with involvement of the upper eyelid were significantly associated with astigmatism (P = .002, P = .02, and P = .003, respectively) and amblyopia (P = .002, P = .02, and P = .04, respectively). Using logistic regression, diameter greater than 1 cm (odds ratio = 14.13, P = .01) and amblyopia (odds ratio = 21.00, P = .04) were the strongest predictors of astigmatism. Lower lid and medial and lateral canthal involvement were not predictive of ocular complications. CONCLUSION: Predictive factors for ocular complications in patients with periocular infantile hemangiomas are diameter greater than 1 cm, a deep component, and upper eyelid involvement, with size being the most consistent predictor. These patients should be promptly referred to an ophthalmologist, and treatment should be strongly considered.

Read More on PubMed