Refractory status epilepticus in children with and without prior epilepsy or status epilepticus

Sanchez Fernandez, I.; Jackson, M. C.; Abend, N. S.; Arya, R.; Brenton, J. N.; Carpenter, J. L.; Chapman, K. E.; Gaillard, W. D.; Gainza-Lein, M.; Glauser, T. A.; Goldstein, J. L.; Goodkin, H. P.; Helseth, A.; Kapur, K.; McDonough, T. L.; Mikati, M. A.; Peariso, K.; Riviello, J., Jr.; Tasker, R. C.; Topjian, A. A.; Wainwright, M. S.; Wilfong, A.; Williams, K.; Loddenkemper, T.

Neurology. 2016 Dec 25; 88(4):386-394

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare refractory convulsive status epilepticus (rSE) management and outcome in children with and without a prior diagnosis of epilepsy and with and without a history of status epilepticus (SE). METHODS: This was a prospective observational descriptive study performed from June 2011 to May 2016 on pediatric patients (1 month-21 years of age) with rSE. RESULTS: We enrolled 189 participants (53% male) with a median (25th-75th percentile) age of 4.2 (1.3-9.6) years. Eighty-nine (47%) patients had a prior diagnosis of epilepsy. Thirty-four (18%) patients had a history of SE. The time to the first benzodiazepine was similar in participants with and without a diagnosis of epilepsy (15 [5-60] vs 16.5 [5-42.75] minutes, p = 0.858). Patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy received their first non-benzodiazepine (BZD) antiepileptic drug (AED) later (93 [46-190] vs 50.5 [28-116] minutes, p = 0.002) and were less likely to receive at least one continuous infusion (35/89 [39.3%] vs 57/100 [57%], p = 0.03). Compared to patients with no history of SE, patients with a history of SE received their first BZD earlier (8 [3.5-22.3] vs 20 [5-60] minutes, p = 0.0073), although they had a similar time to first non-BZD AED (76.5 [45.3-124] vs 65 [32.5-156] minutes, p = 0.749). Differences were mostly driven by the patients with an out-of-hospital rSE onset. CONCLUSIONS: Our study establishes that children with rSE do not receive more timely treatment if they have a prior diagnosis of epilepsy; however, a history of SE is associated with more timely administration of abortive medication.

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