While increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species have been commonly implicated in a variety of disease states, their in vivo role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy remains controversial. Using a two-photon imaging approach with a genetically encoded redox biosensor, we monitored mitochondrial redox state in the kidneys of experimental models of diabetes in real-time in vivo. Diabetic (db/db) mice that express a redox-sensitive Green Fluorescent Protein biosensor (roGFP) specifically in the mitochondrial matrix (db/dbmt-roGFP) were generated, allowing dynamic monitoring of redox changes in the kidneys. These db/dbmt-roGFP mice exhibited a marked increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in the kidneys. Yeast NADH-dehydrogenase, a mammalian Complex I homolog, was ectopically expressed in cultured podocytes, and this forced expression in roGFP-expressing podocytes prevented high glucose-induced increases in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Thus, in vivo monitoring of mitochondrial roGFP in diabetic mice confirms increased production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in the kidneys.