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Pulmonary Disease Burden in Primary Immune Deficiency Disorders: Data from USIDNET Registry

Patrawala, M.; Cui, Y.; Peng, L.; Fuleihan, R. L.; Garabedian, E. K.; Patel, K.; Guglani, L.

J Clin Immunol. 2020 Jan 11; 40(2):340-349


PURPOSE: Pulmonary manifestations are common in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) but the prevalence, specific diseases, and their patterns are not well characterized. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of pulmonary diseases reported in the database of the United States Immunodeficiency Network (USIDNET), a program of the Immune Deficiency Foundation. PIDs were categorized into 10 groups and their demographics, pulmonary diagnoses and procedures, infections, prophylaxis regimens, and laboratory findings were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1937 patients with various PIDs (39.3% of total patients, 49.6% male, average age 37.9 years (SD = 22.4 years)) were noted to have a pulmonary disease comorbidity. Pulmonary diseases were categorized into broad categories: airway (86.8%), parenchymal (18.5%), pleural (4.6%), vascular (4.3%), and other (13.9%) disorders. Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) accounted for almost half of PIDs associated with airway, parenchymal, and other pulmonary disorders. Pulmonary procedures performed in 392 patients were mostly diagnostic (77.3%) or therapeutic (16.3%). These patients were receiving a wide variety of treatments, which included immunoglobulin replacement (82.1%), immunosuppressive (32.2%), anti-inflammatory (12.7%), biologic (9.3%), and cytokine (7.6%)-based therapies. Prophylactic therapy was being given with antibiotics (18.1%), antifungal (3.3%), and antiviral (2.2%) medications, and 7.1% of patients were on long-term oxygen therapy due to advanced lung disease. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary manifestations are common in individuals with PID, but long-term pulmonary outcomes are not well known in this group of patients. Further longitudinal follow-up will help to define long-term prognosis of respiratory comorbidities and optimal treatment modalities.

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