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Psychometric Properties of the Parent and Child Problem Areas in Diabetes Measures

Evans, M. A.; Weil, L. E. G.; Shapiro, J. B.; Anderson, L. M.; Vesco, A. T.; Rychlik, K.; Hilliard, M. E.; Antisdel, J.; Weissberg-Benchell, J.

J Pediatr Psychol. 2019 Mar 29; 44(6):703-713


OBJECTIVE: Children with type 1 diabetes and their parents face daily self-care demands, leading to diabetes-specific emotional distress. A standardized measure of diabetes distress can guide clinical care and prevent negative outcomes. METHODS: This study evaluated the psychometric properties of child- and parent-report measures of the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale, adapted for children ages 8-12 (PAID-C) and their parents (P-PAID-C). Participants were from 42 diabetes camps in the United States. Children (N = 804; mean age = 10.3 +/- 1.1) and parents (N = 968) completed measures of diabetes distress, diabetes-related strengths, and self-care skills. Half of the sample was used for exploratory factor analyses (EFA) with direct oblimin rotation and the other half for confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs). RESULTS: For the PAID-C, EFA and CFAs supported an 11-item two-factor measure, Cronbach's alpha = .91, accounting for 54.6% of the variance. For the P-PAID-C, analyses resulted in a 16-item measure, Cronbach's alpha = .92, accounting for 51.9% of the variance. PAID-C and P-PAID-C scores were positively correlated with HbA1c (rchild = .08, p = .04; rparent = .18, p < .001), and negatively correlated with diabetes-related strengths (rchild = -.38, p < .001, rparent = -.29, p < .001) and parent report of child self-care skills (rparent = -.13, p < .001; rchild = -0.07, p = ns). CONCLUSIONS: Initial psychometrics suggest that the PAID-C and P-PAID-C reliably and validly capture diabetes-specific emotional distress for children and their parents. Associations with glycemic control, self-care, and diabetes strengths demonstrate criterion validity. Both measures have potential applications for routine, clinic-based assessments of diabetes distress and may guide clinical decision-making.

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