OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical efficacy of the self-pressurized air-Q ILA (ILA-SP). AIM: The purpose of this prospective audit was to evaluate the feasibility of the ILA-SP in clinical practice and generate data for future comparison trials. BACKGROUND: The ILA-SP is a new first-generation supraglottic airway for children with a self-adjusting cuff and lack of a pilot balloon. METHODS: Over a 4-month period, 352 children with an ASA physical status of I-III, newborn to 18 years of age, undergoing various procedures were studied. Data points assessed included insertion success rates, airway leak pressures, quality of ventilation, and perioperative complications associated with the use of this device. RESULTS: In 349 of the 352 patients in this study, the ILA-SP was used successfully as a primary supraglottic airway device in a variety of patients. Three patients required conversion to a standard laryngeal mask airway or a tracheal tube. The mean initial airway leak pressure for all patients was 17.8 +/- 5.4 cm H(2)O, and 20.4 +/- 5.5 cm H(2)O when re-checked at 10 min, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Complications were limited to 14 patients and related to reflex activation of the airway (coughing, laryngospasm, and bronchospasm) (n = 10), sore throat (n = 3), and blood staining on removal of the device (n = 1). There were no episodes of regurgitation, aspiration, or hoarseness. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptable clinical performance was demonstrated with the ILA-SP for a variety of procedures in infants and children with spontaneous and positive pressure ventilation. Future studies comparing this device to other supraglottic airways may provide useful information regarding the safety of the ILA-SP in pediatric clinical practice.