BACKGROUND: Current organizational guidelines regarding use of antibiotics during urinary tract catheterization are based on limited evidence and are not directly applicable to the pediatric urology population. We seek to improve understanding of this population by first evaluating current practices. This study aims to investigate practice patterns and attitudes of pediatric urologists regarding the use of antibiotics in the setting of urinary tract catheterization. METHODS: An online survey was sent to members of the Society for Pediatric Urology. Questionnaire sections included demographics, general questions about antibiotic use with catheterization, and specific clinical scenarios. Descriptive statistics were used, and chi-square analysis was performed to examine associations between demographics and specific responses. RESULTS: Of 448 pediatric urologists surveyed, 154 (34%) responded to the survey. A majority of surveyed urologists (78%) prescribe daily prophylactic antibiotics with a hypospadias stent in place, but extensive variation in use of antibiotics was reported with other catheters and tubes. Extensive variation in practice patterns was also reported for three case scenarios regarding antibiotic prophylaxis with catheterization. Urologists > 50 years of age and fellowship-trained urologists were more likely to prescribe antibiotics for hypospadias stents (p = 0.02, p = 0.03), but no other significant associations between demographic characteristics and antibiotic use were found. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial variation in practice patterns among surveyed pediatric urologists regarding prophylactic antibiotic use with urinary catheterization. This variation, combined with a lack of objective data and increasing pressure to decrease infectious complications and combat antibiotic resistance, highlights the need for development of management guidelines for this unique population.