A group A streptococcal (GAS) vaccine, while not currently available, offers the possibility of a more effective approach; however, barriers to its implementation are likely to exist. The objectives of this study were to describe the attitudes of physicians about the importance of preventing GAS-associated conditions and to identify potential barriers to vaccine implementation. Surveys were sent to randomly selected physicians from the AAP and the AAFP. The GAS conditions believed by respondents to be most important to prevent among pediatric patients were ARF (31%) followed by STSS (24%) and pharyngitis (20%). Pediatricians and family physicians identified similar factors that would encourage routine use of a GAS vaccine. Less than half of pediatricians and only a third of family physicians would recommend a GAS vaccine if it could not be given concurrently with other immunizations or if there were strong parental resistance to the vaccine. This descriptive study provides important information about the anticipated use of a GAS vaccine by primary care physicians in the United States.