BACKGROUND: Rates of food-induced anaphylaxis among children remain uncertain. In addition, little is known about the demographics of children who have experienced food-induced anaphylaxis resulting in emergency department (ED) visits and/or subsequent hospitalizations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate trends in ED visits and hospital admissions due to food-induced anaphylaxis among Illinois children and to identify socioeconomic variation in trend distribution. METHODS: Illinois hospital discharge data compiled by the Illinois Hospital Association were used to identify ED visits or hospitalizations for food-induced anaphylaxis in Illinois hospitals from 2008-2012. Data for children aged 0 to 19 years who were Illinois residents and received a diagnosis of food-induced anaphylaxis based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes (995.60 through 995.69) were included for analysis. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the rate of ED visits and hospital admissions due to food-induced anaphylaxis among children in Illinois during the 5-year period, with an annual percent increase of 29.1% from 6.3 ED visits and hospital admissions per 100,000 children in 2008 to 17.2 in 2012 (P < .001). Increases in visit frequency were observed for all study variables, including age, sex, race/ethnicity, insurance type, metropolitan status, hospital type, and allergenic food. Visits were most frequent each year for Asian children and children with private insurance. However, the annual percent increase in visits was most pronounced among Hispanic children (44.3%, P < .001) and children with public insurance (30.2%, P < .001). CONCLUSION: ED visits and hospital admissions for food-induced anaphylaxis have increased during a 5-year period among children in Illinois, regardless of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.