Patient-Centered Medical Home Care for Adolescents in Need of Mental Health Treatment

Yonek, J. C.; Jordan, N.; Dunlop, D.; Ballard, R.; Holl, J.

J Adolesc Health. 2018 Jun 12

Abstract

PURPOSE: The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) has emerged as an optimal primary care model for all youth; however, little is known about the extent to which adolescents in need of mental health (MH) treatment receive care consistent with the PCMH. This study assessed (1) 10-year trends in PCMH care among U.S. adolescents according to MH need and (2) variations in PCMH care and its subcomponents among adolescents with MH need, by individual and family characteristics. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data (2004-2013). The sample included adolescents aged 12-17 years with >/=1 office-based visits in the past year (N = 18,717). Questions assessing a usual source of care and care that is accessible, comprehensive, family-centered, and compassionate were used to define PCMH care. For adolescents with MH needs, multivariable logistic regression was used to describe the association between PCMH care and sample characteristics. RESULTS: Fifty percent of adolescents experienced PCMH care, with little change between 2004 and 2013. Adolescents with MH need (N = 3,794) had significantly lower odds of experiencing PCMH care compared with those without MH need (odds ratio, .78; 95% confidence interval, .69-.87). Among adolescents with MH needs, being uninsured and living with a parent who did not graduate high school were negatively associated with PCMH care, whereas parental usual source of care was positively associated (odds ratio, 1.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.22). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing care accessibility, integrating MH services into primary care settings, and targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged subgroups could improve rates of PCMH care among adolescents with MH needs.

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