With the increase in patients having impaired renal function at liver transplant due to MELD, accurate predictors of posttransplant native renal recovery are needed to select candidates for simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation (SLK). Current UNOS guidelines rely on specific clinical criteria for SLK allocation. To examine these guidelines and other variables predicting nonrecovery, we analyzed 155 SLK recipients, focusing on a subset (n = 78) that had post-SLK native GFR (nGFR) determined by radionuclide renal scans. The 77 patients not having renal scans received a higher number of extended criteria donor organs and had worse posttransplant survival. Of the 78 renal scan patients, 31 met and 47 did not meet pre-SLK UNOS criteria. The UNOS criteria were more predictive than our institutional criteria for all nGFR recovery thresholds (20-40 mL/min), although at the most conservative cut-off (nGFR = 20) it had low sensitivity (55.3%), specificity (75%), PPV (67.6%) and NPV (63.8%) for predicting post-SLK nonrecovery. On multivariate analysis, the only predictor of native renal nonrecovery (nGFR = 20) was abnormal pre-SLK renal imaging (OR 3.85, CI 1.22-12.5). Our data support the need to refine SLK selection utilizing more definitive biomarkers and predictors of native renal recovery than current clinical criteria.