BACKGROUND: Melanoma is the most common cancer diagnosed for patients ages 25 to 29 years, the group with the highest birth rates in the United States. Oncofertility is a new field addressing the reproductive needs of patients with cancer facing fertility-threatening treatments. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess gender-specific fertility risk for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved melanoma therapies with a new risk category system. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of FDA, European Union, and Health Canada regulatory filings, along with previously published reports to grade fertility risk of systemic melanoma therapies. The proposed fertility risk category system is analogous to the FDA's A/B/C/D/X/N pregnancy-risk categories. RESULTS: For female patients, 58% of treatments represent a fertility risk (Category C and D), 33% have unknown risk (Category N), and 1 therapy (vemurafenib) did not show animal ovarian toxicity (Category B). For male patients, 33% represented a fertility risk (Category C and D), 50% of treatments had unknown risk (Category N), and 17% did not show animal testicular toxicity (Category B). LIMITATIONS: Data on fertility risk for melanoma therapies approved after 2009 are limited to preclinical animal studies. CONCLUSION: Dermatologists have an opportunity to discuss fertility preservation, make appropriate referrals, and steward registries on reproductive outcomes for patients with melanoma.