Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (Sanfilippo syndrome) and misdiagnosis of idiopathic developmental delay, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or autism spectrum disorder

Wijburg, F. A.; Wegrzyn, G.; Burton, B. K.; Tylki-Szymanska, A.

Acta Paediatr. 2013 Jan 23; 102(5):462-70

Abstract

Mucopolysaccharidosis III is a rare genetic disease characterized by progressive cognitive decline and severe hyperactivity that does not respond to stimulants. Somatic features are relatively mild. Patients are often initially misdiagnosed as having idiopathic developmental delay, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and/or autism spectrum disorders, putting them at risk for unnecessary testing and treatments. CONCLUSION: Children with developmental or speech delay, especially those with a characteristic somatic feature or behavioural abnormalities, should be screened for MPS III.

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