Methylation alterations of WT1 and homeobox genes in inflamed muscle biopsy samples from patients with untreated juvenile dermatomyositis suggest self-renewal capacity

Wang, M.; Xie, H.; Shrestha, S.; Sredni, S.; Morgan, G. A.; Pachman, L. M.

Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Jun 8; 64(10):3478-85

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of methylation alteration in inflamed muscles from children with juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) and other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs). METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging-directed diagnostic muscle biopsies yielded samples from 20 children with juvenile DM, which were used for genome-wide DNA methylation profiling, as were muscle biopsy samples from 4 healthy controls. Bisulfite treatment followed by pyrosequencing confirmed methylation status in juvenile DM and other IIMs. Immunohistochemistry defined localization and expression levels of WT1. RESULTS: Comparison of genome-wide DNA methylation profiling between juvenile DM muscle and normal control muscle revealed 27 genes with a significant methylation difference between the groups. These genes were enriched with transcription factors and/or cell cycle regulators and were unrelated to duration of untreated disease. Six homeobox genes were among them; ALX4, HOXC11, HOXD3, and HOXD4 were hypomethylated, while EMX2 and HOXB1 were hypermethylated. WT1 was significantly hypomethylated in juvenile DM (Deltabeta = -0.41, P < 0.001). Bisulfite pyrosequencing verification in samples from 56 patients with juvenile DM confirmed the methylation alterations of these genes. Similar methylation alterations were observed in juvenile polymyositis (n = 5) and other IIMs (n = 9). Concordant with the other findings, WT1 protein was increased in juvenile DM muscle, with average positive staining of 11.6%, but was undetectable in normal muscle (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that affected muscles of children with juvenile DM and IIMs have the capacity to be repaired, and that homeobox and WT1 genes are epigenetically marked to facilitate this repair process, potentially suggesting new avenues of therapeutic intervention.

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