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Magnetophysiologic and echocardiographic comparison of blocked atrial bigeminy and 2:1 atrioventricular block in the fetus

Wiggins, D. L.; Strasburger, J. F.; Gotteiner, N. L.; Cuneo, B.; Wakai, R. T.

Heart Rhythm. 2013 Apr 27; 10(8):1192-8


BACKGROUND: Blocked atrial bigeminy (BAB) and second-degree atrioventricular block with 2:1 conduction block (2:1 AVB) both present as ventricular bradycardia and can be difficult to distinguish by echocardiography. Since the prognosis and clinical management of these rhythms are different, an accurate diagnosis is essential. OBJECTIVE: To identify magnetic and mechanical heart rate and rhythm parameters that could reliably distinguish BAB from 2:1 AVB. METHODS: A retrospective study of ten BAB and seven 2:1 AVB subjects was performed, using fMCG and pulsed Doppler ultrasound. RESULTS: Distinguishing BAB from 2:1 AVB by using fMCG was relatively straightforward because in BAB the ectopic P wave (P') occurred early, resulting in a bigeminal (short-long) atrial rhythm. The normalized coupling interval of the ectopic beat (PP' of the blocked beat to PP of the conducted beat) was 0.29 +/- 0.03. In contrast, the echocardiographic assessment of inflow-outflow gave a normalized mechanical coupling interval (AA'/AA) near 0.5, which made it difficult to distinguish BAB from 2:1 AVB. Heart rate distinguished most subjects with BAB from those with 2:1 AVB (82 +/- 5.7 beats/min vs 69 +/- 4.2 beats/min), but was not a completely reliable indicator. In most subjects, BAB alternated with sinus rhythm or other rhythms, resulting in complex heart rate and rhythm patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal BAB and 2:1 AV block can be difficult to distinguish using echocardiography because in many fetuses with BAB the mechanical rhythm does not accurately reflect the magnetic rhythm. fMCG provides a more reliable means of making a differential diagnosis.

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