Lysyl oxidase contributes to mechanotransduction-mediated regulation of transforming growth factor-beta signaling in breast cancer cells

Taylor, M. A.; Amin, J. D.; Kirschmann, D. A.; Schiemann, W. P.

Neoplasia. 2011 May 3; 13(5):406-18


Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates all stages of mammary gland development, including the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and the suppression of tumorigenesis in mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Interestingly, mammary tumorigenesis converts TGF-beta from a tumor suppressor to a tumor promoter through molecular mechanisms that remain incompletely understood. Changes in integrin signaling and tissue compliance promote the acquisition of malignant phenotypes in MECs in part through the activity of lysyl oxidase (LOX), which regulates desmoplastic reactions and metastasis. TGF-beta also regulates the activities of tumor reactive stroma and MEC metastasis. We show here that TGF-beta1 stimulated the synthesis and secretion of LOX from normal and malignant MECs in vitro and in mammary tumors produced in mice. The ability of TGF-beta1 to activate Smad2/3 was unaffected by LOX inactivation in normal MECs, whereas the stimulation of p38 MAPK by TGF-beta1 was blunted by inhibiting LOX activity in malignant MECs or by inducing the degradation of hydrogen peroxide in both cell types. Inactivating LOX activity impaired TGF-beta1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion in breast cancer cells. We further show that increasing extracellular matrix rigidity by the addition of type I collagen to three-dimensional organotypic cultures promoted the proliferation of malignant MECs, a cellular reaction that was abrogated by inhibiting the activities of TGF-beta1 or LOX, and by degrading hydrogen peroxide. Our findings identify LOX as a potential mediator that couples mechanotransduction to oncogenic signaling by TGF-beta1 and suggest that measures capable of inactivating LOX function may prove effective in diminishing breast cancer progression stimulated by TGF-beta1.

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