BACKGROUND: Fetal bone effects of maternal tenofovir use have not been well studied. We sought to compare whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) of newborns exposed vs not exposed to tenofovir in utero. METHODS: We enrolled participants from April 2011 to June 2013 at 14 US clinical sites. Singleton infants of women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who took tenofovir in late pregnancy (tenofovir-exposed) or no tenofovir during pregnancy (tenofovir-unexposed) were enrolled during late pregnancy or within 72 hours of birth. Infants born before 36 weeks gestation or with confirmed HIV infection were excluded. Whole-body BMC was measured in the first month of life and compared with that of the tenofovir-exposed and tenofovir-unexposed newborns, unadjusted and adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: Seventy-four tenofovir-exposed and 69 tenofovir-unexposed infants had evaluable BMC measurements. Tenofovir-exposed mothers were more likely to be married (31% vs 22%; P = .04) and to use boosted protease inhibitors (84% vs 62%; P = .004). Tenofovir-exposed newborns did not differ from unexposed newborns on mean gestational age (38.2 vs 38.1 weeks) or mean length (-0.41 vs -0.18) or weight (-0.71 vs -0.48) Z-scores. The mean (standard deviation) BMC of tenofovir-exposed infants was 12% lower than for unexposed infants (56.0 [11.8] vs 63.8 [16.6] g; P = .002). The adjusted mean bone mineral content was 5.3 g lower (95% confidence interval, -9.5, -1.2; P = .013) in the tenofovir-exposed infants. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal tenofovir use is associated with significantly lower neonatal BMC. The duration and clinical significance of this finding should be evaluated in longitudinal studies. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01310023.