PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of new chorioretinal lesions in children with toxoplasmosis diagnosed after, and therefore not treated during, their first year. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Thirty-eight children were evaluated in Chicago between 1981 and 2005 for new chorioretinal lesions. Thirty-eight children and mothers had serum IgG antibody to Toxoplasma gondii. RESULTS: Twenty-eight of 38 children had one of the following: diagnosis with serum antibody to T. gondii indicative of chronic infection at age 24 months, central nervous system calcifications, hydrocephalus, illness compatible with congenital toxoplasmosis perinatally but not diagnosed at that time. Twenty-five returned for follow-up during 1981 to 2005. Their mean (range) age at last exam was 10.9 +/- 5.7 (range, 3.5 to 27.2) years and mean follow-up was 5.7 +/- 2.9 years. Eighteen (72%) children developed at least one new lesion. Thirteen (52%) had new central lesions, 11 (44%) had new peripheral lesions, and six (24%) had both. Thirteen (52%) had new lesions diagnosed at age > or =10 years. New lesions were found at more than one visit in four (22%), and bilateral new lesions developed in seven (39%) of 18 children who developed new lesions. Of 10 additional children with eye findings and serologic tests indicative of chronic infection, six returned for follow-up, four (67%) developing new lesions at > or =10 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: More than 70% developed new chorioretinal lesions. New lesions were commonly diagnosed after the first decade of life.