Liver transplantation (LTx) was initially developed as a therapy for liver diseases known to be associated with a high risk of near-term mortality but is based upon a different set of paradigms for inborn metabolic diseases. As overall outcomes for the procedure have improved, LTx has evolved into an attractive approach for a growing number of metabolic diseases in a variety of clinical situations. No longer simply life-saving, the procedure can lead to a better quality of life even if not all symptoms of the primary disorder are eliminated. Juggling the risk-benefit ratio thus has become more complicated as the list of potential disorders amenable to treatment with LTx has increased. This review summarizes presentations from a recent conference on metabolic liver transplantation held at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC on the role of liver or hepatocyte transplantation in the treatment of metabolic liver disease.