OBJECTIVES: Anastomotic ulcers are a known cause of anemia in children with a history of intestinal resection. Upper endoscopy and colonoscopy can be used to diagnose these ulcers; however, the area of involvement may be difficult to visualize with standard endoscopic techniques. Capsule endoscopy (CE) offers an alternative method for visualizing the small bowel in these patients. We describe a cohort of patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) and anemia who had anastomotic ulcers detected by CE. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients with SBS at our institution who underwent CE for chronic gastrointestinal (GI) blood loss. RESULTS: Four patients who underwent a total of 6 CE procedures were identified. The underlying diagnoses included necrotizing enterocolitis (n = 2), gastroschisis (n = 1), and jejunal atresia (n = 1). All of the patients had their ileocecal valves resected during previous surgeries and had received blood transfusions within the previous several months. The median age at the time of CE was 5.5 years (range 4-14 years). Enterocolonic anastomotic ulcers were noted in the studies as wide, flat circumferential lesions with a white base. The CE results guided a change in medical management in all of the 4 patients, including surgical revision of their anastomosis. CONCLUSIONS: CE may be a helpful adjunctive tool for detecting anastomotic ulcers in patients with SBS and chronic GI blood loss.