The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) periodically convenes Position Development Conferences (PDCs) in order to establish standards and guidelines for the assessment of skeletal health. The most recent Adult PDC was held July 20-22, 2007, in Lansdowne, Virginia, USA; the first Pediatric PDC was June 20-21, 2007 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. PDC topics were selected according to clinical relevancy, perceived need for standardization, and likelihood of achieving agreement. Each topic area was assigned to a task force for a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. The findings of the review and recommendations were presented to adult and pediatric international panels of experts. The panels voted on the appropriateness, necessity, quality of the evidence, strength, and applicability (worldwide or variable according to local requirements) of each recommendation. Those recommendations that were approved by the ISCD Board of Directors become Official Positions. This is a review of the methodology of the PDCs and selected ISCD Official Positions.