Hispanic ethnicity is an independent risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. In order to compare the prevalence of risk factors for morbidity and mortality between the Hispanic CF population and the non-Hispanic CF population, we performed a cross-sectional study of patients in the 2004 Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry. Among 22,714 CF patients, 1,511 were identified as ethnic Hispanic. Hispanic patients were diagnosed earlier (2.8 vs. 3.3 years, P = 0.005) and acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a younger age (6.6 years vs. 10 years, P < 0.001). FEV(1) was lower for Hispanic patients (81.5% vs. 87% predicted for those under 18 years old [P < 0.001] and 2.1 L vs. 2.3 L for those 18 years and older [P = 0.01]). Hispanic patients had similar or better nutritional status. Hispanic patients were more likely to be diagnosed with liver disease (OR 1.31 [1.1, 1.56]) but less likely to be diagnosed with depression (OR 0.53 [0.39, 0.68]), bone and joint disease (OR 0.55 [0.41, 0.71]), or CF-related diabetes (OR 0.53 [0.43, 0.62]). Hispanic patients had lower median income by zip code ($41,930 vs. $47,341; P < 0.001), a higher rate of government insurance (55.2% vs. 32.0%; P < 0.001), and greater percentage of mothers with less than a high school education (26.7% vs. 6.5%; P < 0.001). We conclude that there is an increased prevalence of important risk factors for morbidity and mortality in the Hispanic CF population.