OBJECTIVE: There is significant variation in the literature regarding the characteristics that are associated with pediatric ovarian torsion and its management. National data regarding the demographics and management of pediatric ovarian torsion are lacking. Our objective was to describe the epidemiology of pediatric ovarian torsion and the rate of oophorectomy by using nationally representative data. Demographic factors and hospital characteristics that are associated with rates of oophorectomy were also explored. METHODS: This was a cohort analysis of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) 2000, 2003, and 2006. All females aged 1 to 20 years who were hospitalized with ovarian torsion in states participating in KID 2000, KID 2003, and KID 2006 representing 900, 1224, and 1232 ovarian torsion-related hospitalizations, respectively, were included. Primary outcome measures included the incidence of ovarian torsion and rate of associated oophorectomy. Multivariable regression was used to control for patient and hospital characteristics. RESULTS: Among females aged 1 to 20 years, there were 1232 cases of ovarian torsion in KID 2006, an estimated incidence of 4.9 per 100000. A total of 713 (58%) were treated with oophorectomy. The rate of ovarian torsion-associated oophorectomy remained unchanged from 2000 to 2006. The adjusted odds of having an oophorectomy decreased by 0.95 for every increasing year of age. Residing in a lower quartile of household income by zip code increased the adjusted odds of oophorectomy. A diagnosis of benign neoplasm increased the adjusted odds of oophorectomy by 2.16. Fewer than 0.5% of ovarian torsion hospitalizations were associated with malignant neoplasm. CONCLUSIONS: Nationally representative hospital data indicate that ovarian torsion is uncommon but occurs in all ages and is typically associated with normal ovaries or benign lesions. Improved awareness of the epidemiology may help to guide management. Ongoing analysis to identify factors that are associated with successful conservative management is warranted.