In Children With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Zone 1 Steatosis Is Associated With Advanced Fibrosis

Africa, J. A.; Behling, C. A.; Brunt, E. M.; Zhang, N.; Luo, Y.; Wells, A.; Hou, J.; Belt, P. H.; Kohil, R.; Lavine, J. E.; Molleston, J. P.; Newton, K. P.; Whitington, P. F.; Schwimmer, J. B.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Mar 14; 16(3):438-446.e1

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Focal zone 1 steatosis, although rare in adults with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), does occur in children with NAFLD. We investigated whether focal zone 1 steatosis and focal zone 3 steatosis are distinct subphenotypes of pediatric NAFLD. We aimed to determine associations between the zonality of steatosis and demographic, clinical, and histologic features in children with NAFLD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of baseline data from 813 children (age <18 years; mean age, 12.8 +/- 2.7 years). The subjects had biopsy-proven NAFLD and were enrolled in the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network. Liver histology was reviewed using the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network scoring system. RESULTS: Zone 1 steatosis was present in 18% of children with NAFLD (n = 146) and zone 3 steatosis was present in 32% (n = 244). Children with zone 1 steatosis were significantly younger (10 vs 14 years; P < .001) and a significantly higher proportion had any fibrosis (81% vs 51%; P < .001) or advanced fibrosis (13% vs 5%; P < .001) compared with children with zone 3 steatosis. In contrast, children with zone 3 steatosis were significantly more likely to have steatohepatitis (30% vs 6% in children with zone 1 steatosis; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Children with zone 1 or zone 3 distribution of steatosis have an important subphenotype of pediatric NAFLD. Children with zone 1 steatosis are more likely to have advanced fibrosis and children with zone 3 steatosis are more likely to have steatohepatitis. To achieve a comprehensive understanding of pediatric NAFLD, studies of pathophysiology, natural history, and response to treatment should account for the zonality of steatosis.

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