The objective was to review the current state of knowledge and recommend future research directions related to long-term outcomes for pediatric liver transplant recipients. A 1-day Clinical Research Workshop on Improving Long-Term Outcomes for Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients was held on February 12, 2007, in Washington, DC. The speaker topics were germane to research priorities delineated in the chapters on Pediatric Liver Diseases and on Liver Transplantation in the Trans-NIH Action Plan for Liver Disease Research. Issues that compromise long-term well-being and survival but are amenable to existing and new research efforts were presented and discussed. Areas of research that further enhanced the research priorities in the Action Plan for Liver Disease Research included collection of longitudinal data to define emerging trends of clinical challenges; identification of risk factors associated with long-term immunosuppression complications; development of tolerance-inducing regimens; definition of biomarkers that reflect the level of clinical immunosuppression; development of instruments for the measurement of health wellness; identification of risk factors that impede growth and intellectual development before and after liver transplantation and identification of barriers and facilitators that impact nonadherence and transition of care for adolescents.