OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association of continuity of neonatologist care with caloric intake and growth velocity (GV) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: We created a daily continuity index (DCI) defined as the number of days the neonatologist worked in the previous week. We estimated the independent associations between this index and infants' daily caloric intake (kcal/kg/day) and GV (g/kg/day) through the first 6 weeks of life using regression analyses. RESULTS: Twenty-eight neonatologists cared for 115 infants over 4643 patient-days. The DCI was independently associated with increased caloric intake (β = 1.27 kcal/kg/day per each day of continuity, p < 10(-4)); this effect was magnified (β = 3.33, p < 10(-4)) in the first 2 weeks. No association was observed between the index and GV. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatologist continuity may contribute to caloric intake in VLBW infants. Quality metrics focused on this area of health care delivery warrant further discovery.