Impact of rotavirus vaccination on hospital-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis in children

Anderson, E. J.; Rupp, A.; Shulman, S. T.; Wang, D.; Zheng, X.; Noskin, G. A.

Pediatrics. 2011 Jan 26; 127(2):e264-70

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Data show that after the implementation of routine rotavirus vaccination for infants in the United States, community-acquired (CA) rotavirus cases declined substantially in the 2007-2008 season. The impact of community-based rotavirus vaccination on the substantial burden of hospital-acquired (HA) rotavirus has not been documented. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We assessed CA and HA rotavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza infections at Children's Memorial Hospital for 5 winter seasons (defined as occurring from September through May) from 2003 to 2008. We also report rotavirus data from the 2008-2009 season. RESULTS: A similar dramatic decline (>60% compared with the median of previous seasons) occurred in the rates of cases of both CA (P < .0001) rotavirus hospitalizations and HA (P < .01) rotavirus infections in the 2007-2008 season compared with previous seasons, whereas the rates of CA and HA influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, respectively, remained stable. Improvements in hand-hygiene compliance did not correlate with a reduction in the transmission rate of rotavirus in the hospital. Both CA and HA rotavirus rates remained much lower in the 2008-2009 than in the 2003-2007 seasons. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based rotavirus vaccination is associated with a substantial reduction in the number of children who are admitted with rotavirus. These data also indicate that routine community-based rotavirus infant vaccination protects hospitalized children from acquiring rotavirus. Vaccination efforts should be encouraged as a strategy to affect the substantial burden of HA rotavirus.

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