OBJECTIVE: To present long-term respiratory function outcomes from an open-label, multi-center, phase 3 extension study (MOR-005) of elosulfase alfa enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in patients with Morquio A syndrome. METHODS: In part 1 of MOR-005, patients initially randomized to ERT in the 24-week pivotal study (MOR-004) remained on their regimen (2.0 mg/kg/week or every other week); placebo patients were re-randomized to one of the two regimens. During part 2, all patients received elosulfase alfa 2.0 mg/kg/week. Respiratory function was one of the efficacy endpoints evaluated in MOR-005. Change from MOR-004 baseline to 120 weeks of treatment for the combined population was determined and compared with results from untreated patients from a Morquio A natural history study (MorCAP). RESULTS: Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) improved up to week 72 and then stabilized; forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) increased continuously over 120 weeks. Mean increases in the modified per-protocol population was 9.2 % for FVC, 8.8 % for FEV1, and 6.1 % for MVV after 120 weeks. All patients =14 years showed respiratory improvements, presumably in part related to growth; however, these were greater in treated patients. For those >14 years, treated patients showed improvements, while deterioration occurred in untreated. Altogether, the improvements were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term ERT is associated with sustained improvements in respiratory function in Morquio A. In younger patients (=14 years), some improvement may be ascribed to growth. In older patients, other mechanisms, e.g., decreased glycosaminoglycan storage, are likely involved.