Impact of Injury Mechanisms on Patterns and Management of Facial Fractures

Greathouse, S. T.; Adkinson, J. M.; Garza, R., 3rd; Gilstrap, J.; Miller, N. F.; Eid, S. M.; Murphy, R. X., Jr.

J Craniofac Surg. 2015 Jun 27; 26(5):1529-33

Abstract

Mechanisms causing facial fractures have evolved over time and may be predictive of the types of injuries sustained. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of mechanisms of injury on the type and management of facial fractures at our Level 1 Trauma Center. The authors performed an Institutional Review Board-approved review of our network's trauma registry from 2006 to 2010, documenting age, sex, mechanism, Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, facial fracture patterns (nasal, maxillary/malar, orbital, mandible), and reconstructions. Mechanism rates were compared using a Pearson chi test. The database identified 23,318 patients, including 1686 patients with facial fractures and a subset of 1505 patients sustaining 2094 fractures by motor vehicle collision (MVC), fall, or assault. Nasal fractures were the most common injuries sustained by all mechanisms. MVCs were most likely to cause nasal and malar/maxillary fractures (P < 0.01). Falls were the least likely and assaults the most likely to cause mandible fractures (P < 0.001), the most common injury leading to surgical intervention (P < 0.001). Although not statistically significant, fractures sustained in MVCs were the most likely overall to undergo surgical intervention. Age, number of fractures, and alcohol level were statistically significant variables associated with operative management. Age and number of fractures sustained were associated with operative intervention. Although there is a statistically significant correlation between mechanism of injury and type of facial fracture sustained, none of the mechanisms evaluated herein are statistically associated with surgical intervention. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.

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