Context: Previous studies have suggested a regulatory relationship between serum phosphorus, vitamin D, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a hormone that promotes renal excretion of phosphate. Despite these associations, the identity of the primary regulator of serum FGF23 is unresolved. Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia is a rare autosomal dominant disorder associated with short-limbed dwarfism and other characteristic skeletal abnormalities. This condition is caused by mutations in the PTH/PTHrP receptor that result in ligand-independent cAMP accumulation, thus rendering the receptor constitutively active. These patients typically exhibit asymptomatic hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia despite low or undetectable serum levels of PTH and PTHrP. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search revealed that serum FGF23 levels had not been studied in patients with Jansen's syndrome, a disorder in which the biochemical features present a unique opportunity to study the possible relationship between FGF23 and calcium-phosphorus-vitamin D metabolism. A case of Jansen's syndrome is presented in which serum FGF23 concentrations, along with serum phosphorus and 1,25(OH)(2) vitamin D levels, were measured and compared with those of age-matched controls. Evidence Synthesis: Serum FGF23 concentrations in the patient with Jansen's syndrome were found to be markedly and persistently elevated, compared with values in healthy, age-matched controls, despite hypophosphatemia and normal 1,25(OH)(2) vitamin D levels. Conclusion: Together, our findings indicate that serum FGF23 could be governed by factor(s) other than serum phosphorus, potentially by activation of the PTH/PTHrP receptor in bone.