OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of hyperoxia and hypocapnia during pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and their relationships to complications, mortality, and functional status among survivors. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data collected prospectively by the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. SETTING: Eight Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network-affiliated hospitals. PATIENTS: Age less than 19 years and treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. INTERVENTIONS: Hyperoxia was defined as highest PaO2 greater than 200 Torr (27 kPa) and hypocapnia as lowest PaCO2 less than 30 Torr (3.9 kPa) during the first 48 hours of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Functional status at hospital discharge was evaluated among survivors using the Functional Status Scale. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 484 patients, 420 (86.7%) had venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and 64 (13.2%) venovenous; 69 (14.2%) had extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Hyperoxia occurred in 331 (68.4%) and hypocapnia in 98 (20.2%). Hyperoxic patients had higher mortality than patients without hyperoxia (167 [50.5%] vs 48 [31.4%]; p < 0.001), but no difference in functional status among survivors. Hypocapnic patients were more likely to have a neurologic event (49 [50.0%] vs 143 (37.0%]; p = 0.021) or hepatic dysfunction (49 [50.0%] vs 121 [31.3%]; p < 0.001) than patients without hypocapnia, but no difference in mortality or functional status among survivors. On multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with increased mortality included highest PaO2 and highest blood lactate concentration in the first 48 hours of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and being a preterm neonate. Factors independently associated with lower mortality included meconium aspiration syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperoxia is common during pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and associated with mortality. Hypocapnia appears to occur less often and although associated with complications, an association with mortality was not observed.