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Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Follow-up Study (HAPO FUS): Maternal Glycemia and Childhood Glucose Metabolism

Scholtens, D. M.; Kuang, A.; Lowe, L. P.; Hamilton, J.; Lawrence, J. M.; Lebenthal, Y.; Brickman, W. J.; Clayton, P.; Ma, R. C.; McCance, D.; Tam, W. H.; Catalano, P. M.; Linder, B.; Dyer, A. R.; Lowe, W. L., Jr.; Metzger, B. E.

Diabetes Care. 2019 Jan 9; 42(3):381-392

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study examined associations of maternal glycemia during pregnancy with childhood glucose outcomes in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: HAPO was an observational international investigation that established associations of maternal glucose with adverse perinatal outcomes. The HAPO Follow-up Study included 4,832 children ages 10-14 years whose mothers had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at approximately 28 weeks of gestation. Of these, 4,160 children were evaluated for glucose outcomes. Primary outcomes were child impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Additional outcomes were glucose-related measures using plasma glucose (PG), A1C, and C-peptide from the child OGTT. RESULTS: Maternal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was positively associated with child FPG and A1C; maternal 1-h and 2-h PG were positively associated with child fasting, 30 min, 1-h, and 2-h PG, and A1C. Maternal FPG, 1-h, and 2-h PG were inversely associated with insulin sensitivity, whereas 1-h and 2-h PG were inversely associated with disposition index. Maternal FPG, but not 1-h or 2-h PG, was associated with child IFG, and maternal 1-h and 2-h PG, but not FPG, were associated with child IGT. All associations were independent of maternal and child BMI. Across increasing categories of maternal glucose, frequencies of child IFG and IGT, and timed PG measures and A1C were higher, whereas insulin sensitivity and disposition index decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Across the maternal glucose spectrum, exposure to higher levels in utero is significantly associated with childhood glucose and insulin resistance independent of maternal and childhood BMI and family history of diabetes.

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