Wilms tumor (WT) treatment regimens are curative for more than 80% of patients, but those with relapsed or refractory disease continue to have poor outcomes. High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell rescue is often utilized although outcomes remain variable. We report on HD-ASCR outcomes in 24 patients with relapsed or refractory Wilms tumor. Three-year disease free and overall survival are 46% and 60%, respectively, which is similar to those reported for conventional salvage therapies. These outcomes suggest that conventional salvage therapies should be employed for relapsed and refractory WT rather than HD-ASCR.