BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: A common trait among cancers is the increased level of glycolysis despite adequate oxygen levels to support aerobic respiration. This has been shown repeatedly in different human malignancies. Glycolysis inhibitors, especially 3-bromopyruvate, have been shown to be effective chemotherapeutic agents. The effect of glycolysis inhibition upon chemotherapy resistance is relatively unknown. METHODS: Wild-type and doxorubicin-resistant lines of neuroblastoma (SK-N-SH and SK-N-Be(2)C) were used in this study. Using an MTT assay, the IC50 of 3-BrPA was determined. Subsequently, doxorubicin-resistant cell lines were treated with 3-bromopyruvate, doxorubicin, and 3-bromopyruvate with doxorubicin. Additionally, a luminescence ATP detection assay was used to measure intracellular ATP levels, and a lactate assay was used to determine intracellular lactate levels. All experiments were repeated in hypoxic conditions. RESULTS: Treatment with 3-bromopyruvate and doxorubicin significantly decreased the mean cell viabilities at 24, 48, and 72hours in normoxic conditions. A similar response was replicated in hypoxic conditions. Treatment with 3-bromopyruvate significantly decreased intracellular ATP and lactate levels. CONCLUSION: Glycolysis inhibitors such as 3-bromopyruvate could prove to become an effective means by which chemotherapy resistance can be overcome in human neuroblastoma.