Glioneuronal tumors of cerebral hemisphere in children: correlation of surgical resection with seizure outcomes and tumor recurrences

Tomita, T.; Volk, J. M.; Shen, W.; Pundy, T.

Childs Nerv Syst. 2016 Sep 24; 32(10):1839-48

Abstract

OBJECT: Glioneuronal tumors are common neoplasms among the cerebral hemisphere during childhood. They consist of several histological types, of which gangliogliomas (GGs) and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNTs) are most common and often present with seizures. A great majority of glioneuronal tumors are benign. However, there are conflict reports regarding postoperative tumor recurrence rates and seizure control. The authors analyzed and compared these tumors for their locations and histology and the tumor and seizure control following resection. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with pediatric glioneuronal tumors in the cerebral hemisphere. All histology reports and neuroimaging are reviewed. Seizure group and non-seizure group were compared with their tumor types and locations. The extent of tumor resections were divided into gross total resection (GTR) and subtotal resection (STR). Postoperative tumor recurrence-free survival (RFS) and seizure-free survival for patients who had the initial surgery done at our institution were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: There were 90 glioneuronal tumors including 58 GGs, 22 DNTs, 3 papillary glioneuronal tumor, 3 desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas, 3 anaplastic GGs, and 1 central neurocytoma. Seventy-one patients (seizure group) presented with seizures. The temporal lobe is the most common location, 50 % in this series. GTR was attained in 79 patients and STR in 11. All of the patients with GTR had lesionectomy, and only six of them had extended corticectomy or partial lobectomy. Postoperative seizure outcome showed that 64 (90 %) of seizure group had Engel's class I, but five patients subsequently developed recurrent seizures. Patients with DNTs had a higher seizure recurrence rate. Tumor RFS was 87 % at 5 years and 75.5 % at 10 years. There are no significant difference in tumor recurrences between GGs and DNTs (p = 0.876). Comparison between GRT (67) and STR (9) showed that in spite of the better 5-year tumor RFSs among GRT group (94 %) than STR group (66 %), the 10-year RFSs showed no significant difference between GRT and STR groups (p = 0.719). Recurrent seizures are often related to recurrent tumor. CONCLUSION: Lesionectomy alone often provides a high-rate seizure freedom. GGs and DNTs are benign tumor, but recurrences of GGs and DNTs are not uncommon. They may show late recurrences in spite of GTR. These patients need longer follow-up for 10 years. Recurrent seizures are often related to a tumor recurrence.

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