PURPOSE: Craniopharyngiomas are benign tumors of the sellar or parasellar regions. They arise from the remnants of Rathke's pouch and are considered a "developmental disease." microRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that play a key regulatory role in the control of expression of entire gene networks. We performed an extensive analysis of miRNAs in craniopharyngiomas aiming to identify a miRNA expression signature that might aid in the prognosis of disease progression and outcome. METHODS: Thirty-seven craniopharyngioma samples from twenty-three patients, ten age-matched controls from autopsy, and ten infant controls from the developing pituitary from autopsy were evaluated for the expression of 754 miRNAs using TaqMan(R) Low Density Arrays (TLDAs) v2.0 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). RESULTS: Among the most differentially expressed miRNAs, downregulation of miR-132 appears to be a marker of aggressiveness and also plays a role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first time that an extensive study of miRNA expression has been performed in craniopharyngiomas. Further research needs to be performed to investigate the potential role of miR-132 in the development and progression of craniopharyngiomas, and its value as a prognostic marker of aggressiveness.