OBJECTIVE: In the US, there has been an evolution in the practice of pediatric urology from a primary academic sub-specialty focused on reconstruction of major congenital genitorurinary abnormalities to a mixed academic and private practice that serves as the primary care giver for all pediatric urologic concerns. The estimated manpower needs were unable to be resolved, due to our inability to determine the impact of sub-specialty certification on referral patterns, along with the failure to embrace the use of physician extenders. Here, we review a series of surveys performed in 2006-2010 regarding the sub-specialty of pediatric urology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The four surveys focused on workforce needs, appraised the financial impact of educational debt on the pediatric urology community, and evaluated concerns of the current fellows in training. RESULTS: The median financial income for a pediatric urologist, the resident's educational debt load, and a desire of the fellows to have an open dialog with the urologic community regarding the merits of the research year are revealed. CONCLUSION: We have identified that the ability to recruit fellows into our field is dependent upon a combination of factors: interest in the field, job availability in relationship to geographic locations, mentoring, concerns regarding financial/familial hardships encountered during a 2-year fellowship, and the lack of increased financial reimbursement for the extra training required.